Omani antique brass pot
Omani antique brass pot
METAL UTENSILS

Below you find a collection of antique brass and copper utensils from Oman.In addition to the high quality silversmith work we also find very skilled coppersmiths in Oman.The town of Nizwa in the interior of Oman has often been associated with the production of coffee pots, so called Dallah.  Colonel S.B. Miles in his "Across the green mountains of Oman in 1876"   he describe: That copper manufacturing one of the principals industries of Nizwa was. Nearly all household utensils of the people living on the Jebel Akhdar were made of copper and only very little earthenware. Also that the copper items were purchased in Nizwa. Miles elsewhere writes: The copper-work from Nizwa is well known for its quality and was widely distributed through the country. The copper-market which though inviting by the quaintness of its wares , is repellent from the incessant noise and deafening din of the hammering going on"

Nizwa has been a centre of high quality copper-work. In the ancient workplaces of the old copper-souq (that no longer exists) you could find under loads of dust old Persian style copper work. The more modern style of copper-work (like in the water-bowl below) is probably a "water-downed version" of the old Persian styles. When trying to date this type of metalwork it is tempting to say "the more detailed and elegant the work is the more ancient the item is" However for a long time Persians and Persian goods were banned from Oman because of them occupying the country several times. Relations between Oman and Persia were normalized when Sultan Said married a (wild and promiscuous) Persian princess in the 1830´s

Omani antique coffeepot

  Omani coffee pot including some silver work (Dallah)
 

 A formal meal of any sort will entail the use of several different sorts of vessel. Ceremonial articles such as coffee pots, trays, halwa spoons, water bowls, incense burners and rosewater sprinklers are normally very decorative often with floral designs. On the process of making coffee in Arabia: Zwemer in 1902 in his "Topsy Turvy land Arabia pictured for children" writes page 34/35:  " The raw coffee-bean is roasted just before it is used and so keeps all its strength; it is pounded fine and lastly when it is boiled two smelling herbs (heyl and saffron) are added, just enough to give a flavour. Some fibres of palm bark are stuck into the spout of the coffee pot to act as a strainer and then the clear brown liquid is poured into a tiny cup and handed out"

 

     Fig 72  in the book "Handwerk und industrie in Ost Afrika Hamburg 1910"  by Franz Stuhlmann

is a photo of an  Omani Dallah made of tinned copper

 

Fig 75  in the book "Handwerk und industrie in Ost Afrika Hamburg 1910"  by Franz Stuhlmann

is a photo of a silver container with medallions containing abstract floral designs. The container shown was according to Stuhlmann made made in Zanzibar or Pangani 

The use of medallions with abstract floral or animal designs in metal work may suggest that the design is originally derived from Persian metalwork. In Oman we used to find very fine antique brass containers and rosewater sprinklers with similar medallions containing floral designs but also funny cartoon like animals. Typically gazelles  and leopards and occasionally peacocks or elephants) However we also find brass containers  with just floral designs in the medallions.

Antique Omani Rosewater sprinkler

Antique Omani brass

The book "Doors of Zanzibar" 1998 with photos by Uwe Rau  and text by Mwalim A. Mwalim contains photos of 94 antique Arab doors in and around Zanzibar stone town. Representation of animate objects  is forbidden in Islam.The design of a couple of the carved Arab doors did contain birds (e.g. peacock) and lions similar to those found on Omani brass vessels. Even on one of the carved doors of  the Sultan's House of Wonders contained a carved bird and lions. On several other antique doors in Zanzibar Stonetown  (e.g. house Tippu Tip) the carved animals have been removed, thereby reflecting differences over time on how strict to interpret these Islamic rules. The majority of doors did not contain animal decoration. In recent years we saw quite a few Omani  girls decorating their scarf's with silver brooches, it is probably human to explore the limits of what is allowed!

antique Omani brass

In 1672 a Dutch ship came to Muscat and a Dutchmen named Padtbrugge  visited the Muscat souq. He writes that trade and crafts are mostly practised by people from Sind and Banians (Hindus). However there are many Arabian rifle-makers and sword-cutlers, anchor blacksmiths and canon-ball blacksmiths as they do not know how to melt and cast Iron etc.  “The coating with tin by use of sal-ammoniac is here as usual as in Persia, because all their pots, saucers, and table dishes are made of brass” Hence it is possible that copper-work in the Import section was made in Oman and date quite early.

Antique Omani coffeepot Nizwa style (brass with silver top)

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Dallah. Omani coffee pot

Common old Omani coffeepots Nizwa style (brass with silver top)  The design includes a spike and "coxcomb" in fact the overall design is that of an abstract bird. Techniques used are: chasing, incising, driving and piercing. Different metal parts fixed together by interlocking a sort of "zip" in the metal and hammering flat so it becomes hardly visible. The lid of the coffee pot has little stones inside, so one hears when someone is opening the pot (avoid poisoning risk? ) Ref 1 demonstrates how such a pot is made. Size: 26 cm high.

The Omani dallah is very different form the heavier and less ornate pots made of brass and found elsewhere in the Gulf area.

Antique Omani coffeepot

Arab Name: Dallah (Nizwa style)

Period: 1850-1955. These coffee-pots have not been made over the past 60 years.

Origin: Northern Oman Purchased in Nizwa. (Carter refers to a similar one made in Nizwa by the silver silversmith Rashid bin Khalfan al Sabahiy.

Arabian folklore credits the discovery of coffee (khawa) as a drink to a goatherd named Al Shadri . He observed that his goats did not sleep after eating the leaves and berries of a particular bush. He tried the fruit and found it reduced fatigue and gave him energy. He picked the berries and carried them with him but, over time , they dried out making it difficult to eat the fleshy pulp. To soften the berries, he boiled them in water and coffee drinking began! (see ref 10) Arabian coffee is in fact native to Ethiopia and was introduced to Arabia 400 years ago.

    References:
  1. The craft heritage of Oman Vol 1 by Richardson & Dorr page 170
  2. Tribes in Oman by J.L. Carter Peninsular publishing 1982 page 162
  3. Tribute to Oman 22nd National day. "Copper Craftsmanship" By Robert Richmond p 136-140
  4. Catalog of the Oman exhibition in the Nieuwe Kerk Amsterdam 2009 page 25
  5. On the border of the Great Desert a journey in Oman by Miles in Geographical Journal 1910
  6. Islamic Art In Oman page 308
  7. Oman Faces and Places page 176-179 use of Coffee in Oman
  8. Throw down the anchor The story of the Muttrah souq by Maxine Burden, centre for Omani dress, Muscat Media Group 2014 pages-150151contains an interview with a modern Kahwa (coffee) seller in the Muttrah souq.
  9. Oman and its Renaissance  by Sir Donald Hawley Stacey International London 1987 page 143 photo with similar item
  10. Tribute to Oman, The coffee connection, 1994/1995 page 71-74

 

Youtube film showing traditional roasting of coffee-beans and baking bread in Oman:

 

 

 

Antique Omani coffee pot (Muscat style)

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Dallah. Omani coffee pot (Muscat style).

 

Common antique Omani coffee pot made of a copper with brass top (Muscat style) The reference demonstrates how such a pot is made. Size: 26 cm high.

All cooking utensils made of copper would have been tinned originally.

 

 

 

Antique Omani coffeepot

 

Arab Name: Dallah. (Muscat style)

Period: 1900-1940

Origin: Oman Nizwa dn Muscat

References:

  1. The craft heritage of Oman Vol1 Richardson & Dorr p 170
  2. Traditional crafts of Saudi Arabia 1981 by John Topham p 178
  3. Islamic Art in Oman page 307
  4. Oman Faces and Places page 176-179 Use of Coffee in Oman
  5. Oman and its Renaissance  by Sir Donald Hawley Stacey International London 1987 page 143 photo with similar item

Very large Omani copper cooking vessel / pot. The top edge with very fine abstract flower designs

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Very large Omani cooking pot

 

Very rare large Omani copper cooking pot. The top edge / rim with very fine flower designs, reminding of the decoration on ceilings in old castes and houses in Oman. Very rare to find one that is ornamented. Diameter 45 cm and 30 cm high. All cooking utensils made of copper would have been tinned originally.

 

 

Antique Omani copper

 

Arab Name: Very large Omani cooking pot / vessel . The top edge with very fine flower designs. A very  old piece.

Period: 1800-1900

Origin: Oman

References:

  1. Richardson & Dorr The Craft heritage of Oman Volume 1 p 130 p 144,145

Omani brass plate, decorated with the shapes of many different local birds!

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Omani brass plates

Very rare  Omani Baluchi  or Zanzibari large Brass plate with many different outlines of birds that actually live in the area of Oman! 

Each bird seems to be sitting on a Persian style lance or spear.

Was fitted with a hook so it could hang from a wall (causing a little damage on the edge) so was probably not used as a dinner-plate . Diameter 64 cm.

 

Antique Omani brass plate

 

Antique Omani brass plate

 

Arab Name: Siniyyah

Period: 1800-1900

Origin: Omani Baluchi. This brass plate was purchased in Nizwa and we have never seen a similar plate elsewhere. It has a hole on one side so the plate was used for decoration on the wall and not as a dining plate. The two two circular decorations with acanthus leaves is also interesting.

 

No Reference?

Antique Omani brass plate with abstract swimming fishes

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Antique Omani brass plate

Very rare Omani brass plate. Very heavy (5,5 kilo) for such a small plate: Maybe for use on a dhow ship? Design with 4 abstract fishes swimming around (see slide-show) similar to Chinese plate design in the 18th century.  In Oman and Persia these fishes were also used in stamps on lead (quality mark) The uprights of Omani doors also contain fish motives (ref 1)  but they look a slightly  different. Very thick layer of brass patina on the back, so of considerable age.  Diameter 54 cm.

The traditional Omani meal of mounded rice and meat with garnishes of many kinds in separate bowls is served on a large round metal tray.

Antique Omani brass plate

Antique Omani copper

Antique Omani plate fishes 

Persian design with abstract fishes on an antique  "lead plaque" (seal of quality)

Arab name: Siniyyah; Seneah nahas

Period: 1700-1850

Origin: Omani Baluchi, Zanzibar, East Africa

The use of medallions with abstract floral or animal designs in metal work may suggest that the design is originally derived from Persian metalwork. In Oman we used to find very fine antique brass containers and rosewater sprinklers with similar medallions containing floral designs but also funny cartoon like animals. Typically gazelles  and leopards and occasionally peacocks or elephants) However we also find brass containers  with just floral designs in the medallions.

This is the only antique brass item with abstract fishes I have seen in Oman.

References:

  1. Zanzibar its History and its people by Ingrams 1931 p 218-219 (fishes on Omani / Zanzibar doors)
  2. The Heritage of Oman by Peter Vine Immel Publishing 1995 page 57 photo bottom left. Prehistoric plate found in Oman with flower element in the centre and fishes around it.
  3. Handwerk und industrie in Ost Afrika Hamburg 1910 by Franz Stuhlmann See also afb 75  p 131-132  Picture 75 contains a silver container with emblems containing flowers that was made in East Africa. The fact that abstract animals are used in the emblems on our plates may also suggest an origin outside Oman proper e.g. Zanzibar were Islamic rules were a bit more relaxed.

Antique Omani beaked water bowl

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Omani Waterbowl

 

Common Omani Water-bowl. Round copper vessel with beak / spout and  incised abstract floral designs.  These bowls are used in Oman after the meal to rinse the hands. 

After a meal the coffee-cups are rinsed in the Sahalah. Coffee spiced with cardamom is poured from the dallah into the cups.

All cooking utensils made of copper would have been tinned originally.

Antique Omani copper water bowl

Arab Name: Sahlah bu mirzab; or  Sahalah

Period: 1850-1950

Origin: Northern Oman

References:

  1. Richardson & Dorr The Craft heritage of Oman
  2. Islamic Art in Oman page 315
  3. Tribute to Oman 22nd National day. "Copper Craftsmanship" By Robert Richmond p 136 - 140

Omani Baluchi Brass Rosewater sprinkler

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Omani Rosewater sprinkler

 

Rare Omani Baluchi Brass Rosewater sprinkler. In Oman traditionally after coffee has been served rosewater is sprinkled over the hands and sometimes over the heads of guests. Rosewater is made by putting crushed rose-petals in water, which is then left for several days to allow evaporation to strengthen the solution.  The floral decorations are similar to those found on Omani Shirazzi style chests. However the designs have also  a major resemblance with metalwork from Zanzibar / East Africa (see Stuhlmann)

 

Antique Omani rosewater sprinkler

Antique Omani rosewater sprinkler

antique Omani brass rosewater sprinkler

Omani antique brass

Rosewater sprinkler seen from the top. There are two tiny holes in the silver cover.

 

 

Arab Name: Omani Baluchi Brass Rosewater sprinkler

Period: 1800-1900

Origin: Oman Baluchi, Zanzibar, East Africa

The use of medallions with abstract floral or animal designs in metal work may suggest that the design is originally derived from Persian metalwork. In Oman we used to find very fine antique brass containers and rosewater sprinklers with similar medallions containing floral designs but also funny cartoon like animals. Typically gazelles  and leopards and occasionally peacocks or elephants) However we also find brass containers  with just floral designs in the medallions

    References:
  1. Handwerk und industrie in Ost Afrika Hamburg 1910 by Franz Stuhlmann See also afb 75  p 131-132  Picture 75 contains a silver container with emblems containing flowers that was made in East Africa. The fact that abstract animals are used in the emblems on our plates may also suggest an origin outside Oman proper e.g. Zanzibar were Islamic rules were a bit more relaxed.
  2. Ruth Hawley Omani Silver Longman London 1978 (no page numbers)
  3. Arab & Islamic Silver by Saad Al-Jadir 1981   Stacey International  p 210
  4. Throw down the anchor The story of the Muttrah souq by Maxine Burden, centre for Omani dress, Muscat Media Group 2014 pages 206-209 contains an article on the making of Rosewater in Oman.
  5. Oman and its Renaissance  by Sir Donald Hawley Stacey International London 1987 page 143 photo with similar item

Below you find a Youtube film how rosewater is being made in Oman:

 

Omani Baluchi Brass Rosewater sprinkler (onion shape body)

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Rosewater Sprinkler

 

Rare Omani Baluchi Brass Rosewater sprinkler. In Oman traditionally after coffee has been served rosewater is sprinkled over the hands and sometimes over the heads of guests. Rosewater is made by putting crushed rose-petals in water, which is then left for several days to allow evaporation to strengthen the solution.  

 

               Antique Omani Rosewater sprinkler

Arab Name: Omani Baluchi Brass Rosewater sprinkler

Period: 1800-1900

Origin: Oman Baluchi, Zanzibar East Africa   Purchased in Nizwa

The use of medallions with abstract floral or animal designs in metal work may suggest that the design is originally derived from Persian metalwork. In Oman we used to find very fine antique brass containers and rosewater sprinklers with similar medallions containing floral designs but also funny cartoon like animals. Typically gazelles  and leopards and occasionally peacocks or elephants) However we also find brass containers  with just floral designs in the medallions

    References:
  1. Handwerk und industrie in Ost Afrika Hamburg 1910 by Franz Stuhlmann See also afb 75  p 131-132  Picture 75 contains a silver container with emblems containing flowers that was made in East Africa. The fact that abstract animals are used in the emblems on our plates may also suggest an origin outside Oman proper e.g. Zanzibar were Islamic rules were a bit more relaxed.
  2. Ruth Hawley Omani Silver Longman London 1978 (no page numbers)
  3. Arab & Islamic Silver by Saad Al-Jadir 1981   Stacey International  p 210

Omani Persian style lock and key 17th century

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Persian style lock 17th century

 

Very rare fine (expensive) steel lock and key (maybe Persian). Some geometric ornamentations and tiny remainders of brass or gold inlays. Probably Persian Safavid. This is probably the predecessor of the Omani Mandoos lock or an Omani door lock.

Sir Richard Burton who lived in Zanzibar for some time wrote in the book Zanzibar City Island and Coast 1872 "the bigger the gateway, the heavier the padlock and the huger the iron studs which nail the door of heavy timber the greater is the owner´s dignity

Antique Omani lock

Arab Name: Persian style lock 17th century

Period: 17th century

Origin: Maybe dating back to the Persian occupation of Oman. Purchased in Nizwa

References:

  1. Locks from Iran pre-Islamic to Twentieth Century Parviz Tanavoli and John Wertime 1976 Page 106 lock no. 202 (Identical to this one! )
  2.  Max von Oppenheim in his book vom Mittelmeer zum Perzischen Golf band II illustration with locks from Baghdad after page 250, similar but not identical
  3. Oman and its Renaissance  by Sir Donald Hawley Stacey International London 1987 page 149  photo with similar item

Antique Omani steel/iron lock

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Antique Omani steel/iron lock

 

Scarce completely handmade steel  padlock with key. Looks like copy of a western lock but this style was made in e.g. Iran for 500 years until the 19th century!! Difficult to date.

 

 

 

Arab Name: Antique Omani steel/iron lock, handmade.

Period: 1800-1900

Origin: Oman Zanzibar

    References:
  1. Locks from Iran pre-Islamic to Twentieth Century Parviz Tanavoli and John Wertime 1976 Page 92 lock no. 131 very similar.
  2. The Craft heritage of Oman Vol 1 Richardson & Dorr p248-249

Omani large Steel and brass key. In Arabic Muftah

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Large Steel and brass key.

 Scarce Omani large Steel and brass key. 

Length 16,5 cm. With incised decoration.  

 

Antique Omani key

Arab Name: Muftah

Period: 1800-1900

Origin: Northern Oman. Purchased in Nizwa

References:

  1. Richardson & Dorr The craft and Heritage of Oman vol 2 page 458 fig 131

Two Antique Omani locks for a Mandus (Omani chest )

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Omani lock for a Mandoos (Omani chest )

 

Two rare examples of antique locks and keys used for an Omani Mandoos ( Omani chest) . Made of steel and with brass decoration including flower / vine engraving. Very rare to find good examples.

 Antique Omani mandoos lock

Antique lock for an Omani chest

Antique Omani lockAntique Omani mandoos lock

Antique Omani lock

Name: Two examples of proper antique Omani locks  for the Omani Mandoos / Chest

Period: 1800-1900

Origin: Oman Zanzibar

    References:
  1. The Craft heritage of Oman Vol 1 Richardson & Dorr page 248-249;
  2. A tribute to Oman National day 1987 "chests to treasure: Raising the lid on a fascinating art form" Robert Richmond. Apex p 144 
  3.  Max von Oppenheim in his book vom Mittelmeer zum Perzischen Golf band II illustration after page 250, but not exactly the same type.
  4. Oman and its Renaissance  by Sir Donald Hawley Stacey International London 1987 page 149 photo with similar item

Brass Omani Baluchi container for Halwa, Henna or Jewelry.

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Covered pot for Henna or Jewelry.

 Scarce brass Omani Baluchi covered pot for Halva, Henna or Jewelry.

The medallions with cartoon like animals including gazelle, lion, peacock, birds and sometime elephants.

 

 

Antique Omani brass

 
Antique Omani brass container

 

Antique Omani brass pot

 

Antique Omani brass pot

Miniature pot for children

Antique Omani brass pot for children

 

Arab Name: Makabah

Period: 1800-1900

Origin: Oman Beluchi, Zanzibar, East Africa

The use of medallions with abstract floral or animal designs in metal work may suggest that the design is originally derived from Persian metalwork. In Oman we used to find very fine antique brass containers and rosewater sprinklers with similar medallions containing floral designs but also funny cartoon like animals. Typically gazelles  and leopards and occasionally peacocks or elephants) However we also find brass containers  with just floral designs in the medallions

    References:
  1. Handwerk und industrie in Ost Afrika Hamburg 1910 by Franz Stuhlmann See also afb 75  p 131-132  Picture 75 contains a silver container with emblems containing flowers that was made in East Africa. The fact that abstract animals are used in the emblems on our plates may also suggest an origin outside Oman proper e.g. Zanzibar were Islamic rules were a bit more relaxed.
  2. Carter Tribes in Oman p 112 see one on top of the chest
  3. Richardson & Dorr The craft and Heritage of Oman vol 2 page 458
  4. Oman & its Renaissance by Sir Donald Hawley also has a picture of such a Halwa pot on page 143

Brass Omani Baluchi container for Henna or Jewelry with a ring on top.

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Brass Omani Baluchi covered pot for Henna or Jewelry.

Scarce brass Omani  covered pot for Halva, Henna or Jewelry. Halva is a very popular sweet in Oman produced from dates. However not every one appreciates it......

In 1900 Zwemer (ref 3) writes "One of the chief industries in the bazaar of Muscat is Hilawi (Halwa) , which to the acquired taste is delicious, but to the stranger smells of rancid butter  and tastes like sweet wagon-grease" .  For centuries the main product of Oman was dates and a lot of them were exported. In 1900 most dates were exported to the USA (see Zwemer ref 3 page 82)

 

Antique Omani brass Henna pot

Antique Omani brass

Antique Omani brass container

Omani antique brass

antique Omani brass

Antique Omani brass container

antique Omani brass pot

Arab Name: Makabah

Period: 1800-1900

Origin: Oman Baluchi, Zanzibar East Africa

The use of medallions with abstract floral or animal designs in metal work may suggest that the design is originally derived from Persian metalwork. In Oman we used to find very fine antique brass containers and rosewater sprinklers with similar medallions containing floral designs but also funny cartoon like animals. Typically gazelles  and leopards and occasionally peacocks or elephants) However we also find brass containers  with just floral designs in the medallions

    References:
  1. Handwerk und industrie in Ost Afrika Hamburg 1910 by Franz Stuhlmann See also afb 75  p 131-132  Picture 75 contains a silver container with emblems containing flowers that was made in East Africa. The fact that abstract animals are used in the emblems on our plates may also suggest an origin outside Oman proper e.g. Zanzibar were Islamic rules were a bit more relaxed.
  2. Carter Tribes in Oman p112 on the chest
  3. Richardson & Dorr The craft and Heritage of Oman vol 2 page 458
  4. S.M. Zwemer Cradle of Islam 1900 page 81 & 82
  5. Oman & its Renaissance by Sir Donald Hawley also has a picture of such a Halwa pot on page 143
  6. Throw down the anchor The story of the Muttrah souq by Maxine Burden, centre for Omani dress, Muscat Media Group 2014 page 198-199 contains an article on Henna.

Another brass Omani Baluchi pots for Henna and Jewelry in a slightly different style

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Jewelry pot with flower design

Scarce brass Omani Baluchi pot decorated with flowers  for halwa Henna or Jewelry made of punched and beaten brass. The detailed floral decorations on these pots are similar to those found on the brass-work of early 19th century  Omani Shirazzi style wooden chests. Compare also with the (very worn) round box made of copper and brass in the Ingrams collection in the British Museum that was purchased in Zanzibar.

 

The floral pot has an acanthus scroll similar to the

 

Antique Omani brass

Antique Omani brass

Arab Name: Makabah Jewelry / Henna box

Period: 1800-1900

Origin: Oman Baluchi or Persia. Purchased in Nizwa.

References:

  1. Carter Tribes in Oman p 112 on the Omani chest
  2. Richardson & Dorr The craft and Heritage of Oman vol 2 page 458
  3. Catalog of the Oman exhibition in the Nieuwe Kerk Amsterdam 2009 page 29
  4. Oman & its Renaissance by Sir Donald Hawley also has a picture of such a Halwa pot on page 143
  5. British Museum Harold Ingrams collection 2012.6030. 64 See on-line collection, Height 19 cm, Diameter 21 cm, weight 1.4 kg

Two Antique brass oil-lamps

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Antique oil-lamps

 

Oil lamp. The wear (see top of the eye) and the patina in the bottom of the lamp suggests significant age.  Similar lamps in the Ingram collection of the British museum, that were collected in Zanzibar. These antique lamps were wrought, so not cast! 

 

Arab Name: Antique brass oil-lamps

Period: 1750-1900

Origin: Zanzibar, Oman, Persia or India?  Purchased in Oman in  the Rustaq souq.

Antique Omani lampAntique Omani brass

Antique Omani lamp

 Antique Omani lamp, purchased in Rustaq souq

 

References:

  1. Carter Tribes in Oman p 112 (oil lamp on the Omani chest)
  2. British Museum Harold Ingrams collection 2014,2011.85  Height: 43.5 centimetres (chain extended) Width: 9.6 centimetres Depth: 9.6 centimetres This collection was made by the donor’s father, Harold Ingrams OBE CMG, who was appointed Assistant District Commissioner to Zanzibar in 1919, and who went on to serve as Private Secretary both to the British Resident and to the Sultan of Zanzibar until he left in 1927

Antique Omani flask to apply medicine to the eye, in the shape of a bird.

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Medicine jar for the eye. In the shape of a bird.

 

 

Scarce antique Omani brass flask / container to apply eye medicine, in the shape of a bird.

 

 

 Antique Omani brass

Arab Name: Medicine jar for the eye. In the shape of a bird.

Period: 1800-1900

Origin: Oman

No Reference? Check