Buschiri: Leader of the Arab uprising
Bushiri leader of the Araberaufstand

ARAB UPRISING 1888

Background to the German occupation of East Africa and uprising (araberaufstand): The German East Africa colony was not initiated by the German government but by a group of adventurers, in fact the government initially opposed the idea. It  began with Carl Peters, an adventurer funded by small investors who signed paper treaties with several (illiterate) native tribal chieftains (based on empty promises of protection) on the East African mainland opposite Zanzibar (thereby bypassing the Arab rulers) The Omani Arabs were not interested in colonies but wanted to be able to trade (slaves and ivory) in East Africa without problems, therefore their influence / rule was based on agreements with local leaders and  protection posts along the trading routes as far as East Congo. The old Arab caravan routes from the interior ended in the fortified harbours Bagamoyo, Mombassa and Kilwa.

 

In 1884/1885 There was a meeting in Berlin where the different European powers in particular Belgium, Germany and Britain agreed the borders of the Congo free-state but also divided up East African between the British and Germans. When the Sultan of Zanzibar protested, since he was the de-facto ruler on the mainland, German chancellor Otto von Bismarck sent five warships and trained their guns on the Sultan's palace. The Sultan of Zanzibar had no option but to agree. On board of one of the German ships was princess Emily Ruete (the eloped sister of the Sultan) with her three children (see the separate chapter on Emily on this website!!)

In 1885 the German government granted an imperial charter (signed by Bismarck) to Peters company to establish a protectorate in East Africa. Subsequently he founded the "Deutsch Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft Carl Peters Genossen" (DOAG). Peters then began exploring south to the Rufiji River and north to Witu, near Lamu on the coast.

 

Bushiri al Harthi

Very rare original photo of Bushiri al Harthi in his camp in Nzole

This photo was taken by the French missionary Etienne Baur on 20 march 1889

For details see the PhD paper "Pere Etienne Baur en de Arabische Opstand" van H.G.M. Tullemans

 

Background to the Arab uprising against the Germans and the Sultan in 1888-1890 (Araberaufstand): In 1888/1889 The Arab revolt lead by Buschiri started and which could only be suppressed with the help of the German navy and army. From this point the German government was actively involved. The revolt by Arabs and some local tribes was against the Germans and their weak Sultan of Zanzibar. The revolt was eventually suppressed by a German / Anglican ship blockade and by German troops. German warships patrolled the coast and searched Arab vessels.  In February 1889 von Bismarck appointed Lieutenant Herman Wisssmann as Reichscommissar  of German East Africa. Wissmann concentrated a protection force (Schutztruppe) of German officers and native Ashkari soldiers, who, with support of the German Marine and the  Royal Navy subsequently suppressed the revolt. Bushiri al Harthi was hanged.

  

 

Collection of 50 photos taken by J. Sturtz and collected and annotated by Emil Voelker of the German warship Carola. Lower resolution variants of these photos were also used in a rare and valuable book, requested by the German emperor,  with the title "Land und Leute von Ostafrika etc." with interesting text describing the photos and events by Wangemann 1890 (second edition) and 1894 (third edition) The first edition of this book by Wangemann  is unrecorded, maybe there is a relation with our set of 50 photographs. Our photos differ from those in Wangemann as sometimes the images are cut off a bit,  but in many cases slightly more image is shown than in the Wangemann photos!

 

Note: Several of the manuscript captions by Voelker of our photos maybe incorrect (we indicate differences with the description by Wangemann's book "Land und Leute von Ostafrika"

 

 

 

 

!

Start of the revolt in 1888

March 1888 Sultan Barghash of Zanzibar  died and was succeeded by his brother Khalifa.  28 April 1888 Khalifa  signed a contract in which the German East Afrika Company (DOAG) rented part of the coastal area for an annual fee, the contract became effective in August. The German von Zelewski deeply offended the local Swahili / Omani population by walking with his dog into a mosque in Pangani. The DOAG flag could only be hosted next to that of the Sultan with military force by the Germans. Subsequently also  revolts broke out in Tanga, Bagamoyo and Kilwa. By end December the DOAG officials had to flee to the ships except for Bagamoyo and Dar Es Salaam. It now became clear to the German Government that the DOAG was unable to protect its territory  and that the German marine needed to intervene. Antique photo Pangani

Local houses in Pangani (ref 2 Photo by J. Sturtz)

According to Ref 1 the photo shows houses in Zanzibar town quarters of Ngambo!

 

Antique photo Bagamoyo

 Ref 1 describes this photo as the "The defenders of Bagamojo" The man on the horse is Freuherr von Gravenreuth . We see fast-firing canons and in the background are the Askari soldiers. Many of the Arabs in Bagamoyo fled and joined the enemy even the local Wali (Lamki) left ( Wangemann did not mention that the Wali (Lamki) was forced to leave his home by the Germans and initially refused to leave)

The manuscript text by Voelker below our copy of the photo (ref 2 J. Sturtz) says :

"Expedition von Dr. Peters vor dem abmarsch 1890" this may be incorrect?

antique photo Bagamoyo

Main street in Bagamoyo (ref 2 photo J. Sturtz)

antique photo Dar es Salaam

Bagamoyo (ref 1 photo J. Sturtz) According to Wangemann this is the central part of town. Similar to the drawing in Ref 3  page 139

 Voelker writes: Dar es Salaam  (Ref 2 photo J. Sturtz ), but location wrong.

 Antique photo Dar es Salaam

Ref 1: Dar es Salaam Boma photo J. Sturtz

Ref 2: Zanzibar Cocotoni (photo J. Sturtz)

 Dar es Salaam antique photo

Dar es Salaam Panorama right side  (Ref 2)

On the left of the white building are the ruins of the old city and further to the left the ruins of the Sultan's palace (see below)

Ruins Dar es Salaam

Ruins Dar es Salaam Panorama left side

 

German Hospital Dar es Salaam

According to Ref 1 it is a German hospital in Dar Es Salaam.

According to Ref 2 (Voelker) it is a building in Bagamoyo, but probably wrong.

 

Ancient Arab Graveyard East Africa

Ancient Arab Graveyard on the coast of East Africa (ref 2)

 

Tanga East Africa

Dhows on the beach at Tanga (Ref 2)

 

Mission Tanga

Evangelical Mission in Tanga / Dar Es Salaam that was to be burned down by the Arabs (Ref 2)

Antique photo Tanga

Local people of Tanga 

 To control the uprising the German Marine (fleet ) was called in to help. The fleet would provide soldiers and block the coast of East Africa.

References:
  1. Land und Leute in Duetsch Ost Afrika 1890 Wangemann (text); Sturtz (photos)
  2. Erinnerung an die Ostafrikanische Blockade und  meiner Reise an bord SMS Carola 1888-1890 (50 original photos, by naval officer J. Sturz, the album belonged to Emil Voelker and contains his manuscript captions on the photos) Emil Voelker was on-board the SMS Carola during these events.
  3. F.H. Behr Kriegsbilder aus dem Araberaufstand in Deutsch-Ostafrika. Mit einem Vorwort von H. von Wissmann 1891 On page 139 you find a woodcut of Bagamoyo based on the  above photo.

Bushiri bin Salim Al Harthi the leader of the Arab revolt against the Germans 1888 Rare photos probably taken by the missionary Etienne Baur

Bushiri bin Salim Al Harthi leader of Arab revolt

Three very rare original photos of Bushiri bin Salim Al Harthi the leader of the Arab revolt against the Germans taken 1888.

The second photo (blue) was according to Ref 2 (volume 1 after page 130) taken by Father Etienne Baur on march 20 1889 in Bushiri´s camp in Nzole. The photo has the same strange overlays / disturbances  as ours. This is probably a rare (blue) Cyanotype photo print. Etienne Baur was head of the congregation of the Holy Ghost-Fathers in Bagamoyo.

It is very well possible that all three photos were taken by Etienne Baur as Bushiri was more or less a friend. Baur played a key role in The negotiations between the Germans and the revolting Arabs. For many details see ref 2.

Antique photo Bushiri

                           Antique photo of Bushiri, the leader of the Araberaufstand
Etienne Baur photo of Bushiri
Buschiri leader of the Araberaufstand: Photographed by the French missionary  P. Etienne Baur on March 20 1889 in Buschiri's camp in Nzole. Etienne Baur tried to stay neutral between Bushiri and the Germans (in the interest of the local population) Bushiri trusted him.
 
Antique photo Bushiri Araberaufstand
Bushiri leader of the Araber aufstand

Details of the Arab revolt against the Germans

Very rare and important photos. The revolt was led by Bushiri and by Bwana Heri. The slide-show contains three fine photos. One blue photo has been printed in a special technique named. Original photo. In 1888 the Omani / Zanzibari Arabs and some African tribes (Yao) in East Afrika started a revolt against the Germans and the Sultan of Zanzibar who were taking over control of East Africa.  The livelihood of these Arabs and African tribes was threatened by the Germans taking control of the country, they were typically ivory and slave traders and owners of plantations with slaves.  They also revolted against the Sultan as he was seen as a puppet of the British.

The revolt started with some hostages being taken by the revolting Arabs in. Father Etienne Baur was head of the French mission, and had been living peacefully for 20 years with Arabs and other local tribes. As France did not play a role in the conflict and because Etienne Baur was trusted by all parties he played a key role in the negotiations for the release of the hostages. Not insignificantly he came form the Elzas and spoke therefore fluently French and German. He also spoke fluently Arabic and Swahili. After the release of the hostages the war intensified in particular by the attitude of  von Wissman.

The German army led by  Hermann von Wissmann put down the revolt. Bushiri was arrested and hanged in 1889 (see next photos) Ironically the Germans stopped slavery but at the same time they took large numbers of Africans prisoner and turned them into forced labor, often shackled with the same chains previously used by the Arabs for slaves. So slavery effectively becomes forced labor (just a different name) ! Also the Germans do not involve the Africans in any way in the development of the country and they were without any rights.

Origin: Taken in East Afrika
References:
  1. Slavernij en bevrijding in Oost-Afrika in de 19e eeuw, Afrika Museum, Berg en Dal 2003 page 123 (incl background to the events and other photo of Bushiri)
  2. HGM Tullemans Pere Etienne Baur en d Arabische opstand van 1888-1889 Promotion Thesis 1982 2 volumes University of Nijmegen
  3. Handboek Herkennen fotografische en fotomechanische procedes. Historische en moderne procedes en digitale afdruk technieken. Jan van Dijk. Primavera Pers Leiden 2011 page 194 describes the Cyanotype photographic printing process.

Germans exercising local Askari soldiers 1890 with music band

Germans exercising local Askari soldiers 1890 Music.

Germans exercising local soldiers (Askari) with music band.

Photo  taken around 1890. Many years later the Ashkari´s would even get a small German state pension!

 

 Antique photo Askari music band

Background to the Askari soldiers

Rare photo. Most enlisted ranks in the German "protection" forces in East Afrika were generally recruited locally. They became known as Askari. Askari is an Arabic word meaning "soldier" (Arabic: عسكري‎ ‘askarī). The first Askaris formed in German East Africa were raised by DOAG (Deutsche Ost-Afrika Gesellschaft - the German East Africa Company) in the 1880´s. Originally drawn from Sudanese mercenaries, the German Askaris were subsequently recruited from the Wahehe and Angoni tribal groups.These Swahili askaris were then incorporated into the Wissmanntruppe in 1889 to tackle the Arab (Buschiri) revolt.They were harshly disciplined but well paid and highly trained by German cadres who were themselves subject to a rigorous selection process.  Decades later the brave Ashkari´s received a German pension. To proof to German civil servants that they had been Ashkari´s, individuals had to demonstrate they could march like German soldiers (using a broomstick) and most were still able to demonstrate it perfectly!

References:

  1. Slavernij en bevrijding in Oost Afrika in de 19e eeuw by Afrika museum Berg en Dal 2003.

The Deutsche Kaisarliche Marine (Navy) takes action 1888-1890

A Fleet with several ships takes action on the East African Coast. The ships include the Frigate Leipzig and the cruisers Sophie, Carola, Mowe and Schwalbe.

SMS Schwalbe ostafrika

SMS Schwalbe before Ostafrika 1888 (ref 2)

All sailors  crossing the the Equator for the first time have to go through the Equator Crossing ceremony. Neptune (the guy with the very high striped hat towards the back) leads the ceremony on board SMS Carola.

Equator Crossing Ceremony SMS Carola

Equator Crossing Ceremony on board the SMS Carola  1888 (ref 2)  

 

Bagamojo antique photoGerman sailors of the SMS Carola landing at Bagamoyo (Ref 2)

 

Antique photo Bagamoyo Landungs Corp SMS Mowe before the fort of Bagamoyo (ref 2)

 

Antique photo Bagamoyo

Decorated Soldier trained by Wissmann in front of Bagamoyo fort

 

SMS Carola Local Askari soldiers trained by von Wissman, on-board the SMS Carola (ref 2)

 

Blocade East Africa German sailors checking local dhows

Blockade East Africa 1888-1890 , local vessels being searched by German sailors  (ref 2) 

See also ref 3 page 38

 

Blockade Ostafrika 1888

Blockade East Africa 1888-1890 , local vessels being searched by German sailors  (ref 2) 

 

SMS Carola Ostafrika

German Sailors of  SMS Carola preparing to board a sloop (ref 2)

 

SMS Carola Ostafrika

 Sailors of SMS Carola putting an Ox (fresh meat) into the sloop (ref 2) 

 

SMS Carola Araberaufstand

Sailors of SMS Carola cutting down a Christmas tree (ref 2)

Blockade East Africa 1888-1890 , local vessels being searched by German sailors

References:
  1.  Land und Leute in Deutsch Ost Afrika Wangemann (text); Sturtz (photos) There is a second edition of  1890 and a third of 1894. No copy of the first edition is known: Maybe there is a relation of this first edition with of our set of 50 photos which are higher resolution variants of the Sturtz photos in the Wangemann book.
  2. Erinnerung an die Ostafrikanische Blockade und  meiner Reise an bord SMS Carola 1888-1890 (50 original photos, by naval officer J. Sturz, the album belonged to Emil Voelker and contains his manuscript captions on the photos)
  3. Schwalbe , packende bericht von korvetten-kapitan Hirschberg beschreibt dei einsatz des kruezers Schwalbe während der Niederschlagung der Aufstände in Ostafrika. Am 20. November 1888 legt sein Schiff in Kiel ab, um Ende Januar 1889. Published 1895 

German expedition / caravan East Africa with carriers resting 1890

German expedition East Africa with local carriers resting

 

German expedition / caravan with ashkari soldiers and carriers resting. This original photo was  taken around 1889-1891. Photographer unknown.

 Antique photo East Africa expedition 1890

  

 

 Very rare photograph of a German expedition in the interior of East Africa.

References:

  1. Slavernij en bevrijding in Oost-Afrika in de 19e eeuw, Afrika Museum, Berg en Dal 2003 page 123 (incl background to the events and other photo of Bushiri)
  2. HGM Tullemans Pere Etienne Baur en d Arabische opstand van 1888-1889 Promotion Thesis 1982 2 volumes University of Nijmegen

German Boma in Kivinje on Kilwa and chained prisoners in front 1891

German Boma Kivinje on Kilwa Chained prisoners

 

Prisoners / forced labourers chained by the neck (!) with their DOAG German guards in front of the German Boma in Kivinje on Kilwa taken around 1891. 

 

 Antique photo Kivinje Zanzibar

 German chained prisoners Eastafrica

Prisoners, chained by the Germans,  in front of Kivinji Fort on Kilwa

 

Boma Kilwa

Soldiers marching in front of Kivinji Fort on Kilwa

 

Background to the German Boma in Kivinje (Kilwa)

Rare photo. The black prisoners have been chained to each other by the Germans, like slaves of the Arabs previously. The chains are connected to  steel bands around their necks.

This Boma was a customs station of Deutsch-Ostafrikanischen Gesellschaft. In 1888 two employees of D.O.A.G were killed by the uprise of the Arabs against the Germans and the Sultan. In May 1890 the D.O.A.G station was taken over by von Wissmann. The photo below shows how the ruined building looks like a few years ago, see also Ref 1 page 63.The same reference book also shows many early monuments in Kilwa and their background. Very interesting is that the architectural elements from ruins in Kilwa shown in ref 1 page 39, are also used in antique Safavid Persian copper-ware found in Nizwa Oman, see the "imports to Oman" section of our website. Ref 1 page 29 top left shows Islamic pottery similar to that found in Qalhat Oman.The common historic link is the probably seaborn kingdom of Hormuz (10-16th cent) run by Persians and Arabs (Omani).

Kivinji Fort on Kilwa

This is how the Boma looked a few years ago

References:
  1. Karen Moon Kilwa Kisiwani  Ancienne cite portuaire de la cote d´Afrique de l´Est, Total identity, Dar es-Salam, Tanzania 2005 (French edition)
  2. Karen Moon Kilwa Kisiwani Ancient port of the East African coast 2005 (English Edition)
  3. Slavernij en bevrijding in Oost Afrika in de 19e eeuw by Afrika museum Berg en Dal 2003.
  4. HGM Tullemans Pere Etienne Baur en d Arabische opstand van 1888-1889 Promotion Thesis 1982 2 volumes University of Nijmegen

Youtube film Kilwa:

Cruelty on both sides during the uprising

Like in every other war cruelties take place on both sides.

 Araberaufstand

 Women involved in the building activities at Bagamoyo fort. Note the crane-bird in the front. (Ref 2)

Araberaufstand Bagamojo

The man on the left sitting on the drum was a soldier for the Germans and captured by Bushiri. Bushiri had the men's hands chopped off and send him back to the Germans with message all other local soldiers captured would suffer the same fate. The monkey sitting on the shoulder of one of the sailors was nicknamed Bushiri after the leader of the uprising. (Ref 2) 

Only a small number of Germans were killed during the uprising but thousands of locals were killed....

The slavery and internal conflict had diminished the male population and by late 19th century 75% of the population was female or child. Consequentially the Germans had a chronic shortage of local men to work on their populations, resulting in various means to force people to work for them. Because of the lack of resources the German colony was also not economically successful. 

In 1897 Carl Peters was taken to court by the Germans for his brutal treatment of the local black population and stripped of all his functions and his pension. Some years later he got back his pension from the emperor, in the 1930's he was fully rehabilitated by the Nazi's.

It was an Ashkari named Duni, whose hands were chopped off by Bushiri, who showed the Germans the location of Bushiri's secret camp that resulted in Bushiri's arrest. So the man above could be Dunia.

References:
  1. Land und Leute in Deutsch Ost Afrika Wangemann (text); Sturtz (photos) There is a second edition of  1890 and a third of 1894. No copy of the first edition is known: Maybe there is a relation of this first edition with of our set of 50 photos which are higher resolution variants of the Sturtz photos in the Wangemann book.
  2. Erinnerung an die Ostafrikanische Blockade und  meiner Reise an bord SMS Carola 1888-1890 (50 original photos, by naval officer J. Sturz, the album belonged to Emil Voelker and have his manuscript captions on the photos) Emil Voelker was on-board the SMS Carola during these events.

Three glass negatives with scenes from East Africa and the Araberaufstand around 1890

German Photographer between East African fighters

 

Three original glass plates (negatives). One with a German photographer carrying his big camera between East African fighters.  Another with chained prisoners and another one with an unknown prisoner.  tent. The photos probably date from around 1890.  

 

 Photographer Ostafrika masai

German photographer between East African fighters!

 

Chained prisoners East-Africa

 Prisoners chained by the Germans, guarded by Askari soldiers

 

 Araberaufstand Ostafrika

Unknown chained prisoner of the Germans

Araberaufstand ostafrika

German Soldier holding early camera

Very rare photo (glass plate negative) that shows a German soldier holding an early camera between East African tribesmen. We have not yet identified the camera nor do we know who took the photograph.The Arab / Swahili man sitting on a little chair in the second photo is probably a chief. This photo was developed from an original glass negative in our collection.

References:

Bushiri bin Salim al Harthi arrested 1889

Bushiri bin Salim al Harthi arersted

 Bushiri bin Salim al Harthi arrested and chained by Askari on December 5 1889 in Pangani, he was the leader of the Arab revolt against the Germans. Bushiri's pistol is in the belt of one of the Ashkari.

 This photo probably was taken by Etienne Baur as Bushiri was more or less a friend. Baur played a key role in The negotiations between the Germans and the revolting Arabs. For many details see ref 2.

 The photo on the left  with Buschiri's arrest was also used for ref 3.

 

Antique photo arrest Bushiri

Very rare original photo of the arrest of Bushiri and being chained in Pangani 

Photo taken December 16 1889

Details to the arrest of  Bushiri bin Salim al Harthi

Rare and important original photo. Buschiri arrested and put  in chains and guarded by two Askari soldiers. One of the Ashkari wearing Bushiri´s pistol. A poor copy of this photo can be found in ref 2 volume 1 after page 142 (that image was copied from a photo in the Museum in Bagamoyo). Ref contains a drawing based on this photo.  According to Richelmann it was an African named Dunia who showed the German army the way to Bushiri´s camp in Nzole. He took revenge as Bushiri had chopped off both Dunia´s hands previously. The large German army attacking Bushiri´s camp in Nzole  formed a column that was  2 kilometers long!!

References:
  1. Slavernij en bevrijding in Oost-Afrika in de 19e eeuw, Afrika Museum, Berg en Dal 2003 page 123 (incl background to the events and other photos of Bushiri)
  2. HGM Tullemans Pere Etienne Baur en d Arabische opstand van 1888-1889 Promotion Thesis 1982 2 volumes University of Nijmegen
  3. F.H. Behr Kriegsbilder aus dem Araberaufstand in Deutsch-Ostafrika. Mit einem Vorwort von H. von Wissmann 1891 On page 331 you find a woodcut based on the  above photo with the arrest of Buschiri!!
  4. Kapitan Hirschberg, Neunzehn Monate kommandant S.M. Kreutzer Schwalbe Ost  Afrika 1895. Contains a drawing based on this photo on page 166.

Public hanging of Bushiri bin Salem al Harthi by the Germans in December 16 1889

Public hanging of Bushiri bin Salem al Harthi East Africa

Public hanging of Bushiri bin Salem al Harthi by the Germans in December 16 1889. Bushiri´s remaining fighters joined Bwana Heri , who was attacked two more times by the German army.

After pressure by The Sultan of Zanzibar Bwana Heri surrendered himself to the Germans ( and was not executed)

 

 

Execution Bushiri

Public hanging of Bushiri by the Germans

Background to the hanging of Bushiri

As mentioned before the revolt was started because the Arabs lost power and influence to the Germans and even their own Sultan in Zanzibar did not protect them against the German invaders.  At some point  Buschiri had kidnapped two Germans Meyer and Baumann and enchained / shackled them in his plantation named Mundo. A ransom of 10.000 Rupies was demanded for their release from the German company Hansing and co. Eventually they were released and taken on a boat  to Zanzibar. The kidnapping played an important role in the decision to hang Bushiri. The other leader of the revolt Bwana Heri was not executed. The Arab revolt confirmed the German government that the DOAG would not be able to run / defend the East African territory on its own.  Which effectively resulted in East Africa becoming a German Colony including protection by the German army.

Ref 3 contains a drawing based on this photo.

References:
  1. Slavernij en bevrijding in Oost-Afrika in de 19e eeuw, Afrika Museum, Berg en Dal 2003 page 123 (incl background to the events and other photo of Bushiri)
  2. HGM Tullemans Pere Etienne Baur en d Arabische opstand van 1888-1889 Promotion Thesis 1982 2 volumes University of Nijmegen Volume 1 page 67
  3. Kapitan Hirschberg, Neunzehn Monate kommandant S.M. Kreutzer Schwalbe Ost  Afrika 1895. Contains a drawing based on this photo on page 167

German soldier riding a Zebra East Africa 1890-1900

German soldier riding a zebra East Africa

The first photo shows a German soldier riding a zebra!  The second photo in the slide-show has a Zebra used as a transport animal. These photos have been produced from our original glass plates (negatives) Horses could not be used as they were killed by Tse Tse flies.

 

 

Antique photo German riding zebra

 antique photo German riding zebra

Background to the use of Zebras instead of horses

Domesticated Zebras were used due to a shortage of horses and donkeys. Also Horses were much more sensitive to insect bites than zebra´s. The Germans even tried painting there horses like zebra´s to avoid insect bites. Anatomically zebra´s are not really  fit for carrying heavy loads as their back is rather weak. Therefore the Germans tried to cross-breed zebra´s and Muscat-donkeys.  This photo was developed from an original glass negative in our collection.

 

References:

Murdered Sultan Seyyid Hamad bin Thuwaini Al-Busaid 1893 Zanzibar

Sultan of Zanzibar Abdul Hamid 1893

Rare original photo of the Sultan of Zanzibar Seyyid Hamad bin Thuwaini Al-Busaid (ruled 1893-1896)  The Sultan sits on a chair wearing a Saidi Khanjar, a sword and wooden slippers. Sultan Hamad was pro British, but he was succeeded by Khalid bin Barghash Al-Busaid (1874 – 1927) who was anti-British ( but pro-German). Another image of this photo has been printed in Ref 1, the catalogue describing the Winterton Africana collection page 138 album 73 item 27.

Photographer unknown. Size of photo 14 by 22 cm

  Antique photo Sultan Hamid Zanzibar 1893

  Sultan of Zanzibar Abdul Hamid bin Thuwaini Al-Busaid  (ruled 1893-1896)
 

In August 1896, Britain and Zanzibar fought a 38-minute war (killing 500 defenders) the shortest in recorded history, after Khalid bin Barghash had taken power after Hamid bin Thuwaini's death (poisoned?) . The British had wanted Hamoud bin Mohammed to become Sultan, believing that he would be much easier to work with. The British gave Khalid an hour to vacate the Sultan's palace in Stone Town. Khalid failed to do so, and instead assembled an army of 2,800 men to fight the British. The British launched an attack on the palace and other locations around the city. Khalid retreated (to the German consulate) and went to German East Africa.  Hamoud was then installed as Sultan.

History of Sultan of Zanzibar Seyyid Hamad bin Thuwaini Al-Busaid

Sayyid Hamad bin Thuwaini Al-Busaid, GCSI, (1857 - August 25, 1896) was the fifth Sultan of Zanzibar. He ruled Zanzibar from March 5, 1893 to August 25, 1896. He was married to a cousin, Sayyida Turkia bint Turki al-Said, daughter of Turki bin Said, Sultan of Muscat and Oman. 

Hamid died suddenly at 11.40 am on 25 August 1896 and was almost certainly poisoned by his cousin Khalid bin Barghash who proclaimed himself the new sultan and held the position for three days before being replaced by the British government after the 40 minute long Anglo-Zanzibar War (shortest war ever)

References:

1.  This photo is also found in the album Reise Erinnerungen page   in the Winterton collection. North Western University USA.138 Album 73 photo 27 (1880-1896)

War between Britain and Zanzibar resulting in the ruined palaces (Guiness book of records: Shortest war ever, lasting 38 minutes)

Slide-show: Zanzibar palace in Ruins: Shortest war ever

War between Britain and Zanzibar (Shortest war ever) War broke out between Zanzibar and the United Kingdom in 1896 when the sultan of Zanzibar died and his nephew, Khalid bin Barghash seized power in a coup. The unequal war lasted only 38 minutes!Published in the supplement to the British magazine Graphic in 1896 entitled "40 minutes work at Zanzibar"  See the slide-show for photos of the resulting devastation.

The Shortest War in History

The British treated Zanzibar as a "protectorate" As Khalid did not want to protect the British interest the British were very upset. The old sultan had tolerated the growing Western influence and meddling in Zanzibar affairs. However the Omani / Arab population of Zanzibar and East Africa was already for a long time unhappy about loss of influence due to the Germans, French and in particular British undertakings in East Africa. Which already had resulted in the up rise of 1888 against the sultan and the German DOA company on the African mainland. Alarmed by the prospect of a German takeover, the Royal Navy assembled five warships off the Zanzibar coast, nearby the sultan’s palace and ordered Khalid bin Barghash to give up the throne in favor of the old sultan’s elder son. Khalid bin Barghash, not only refused but also declared war on the British. The Royal Navy opened fire on the Sultan´s ship Glasgow and the on 27th August 1896. The Glasgow sank after fifteen minutes and the palace walls crumbled under gunfire causing numerous casualties amongst the sultan’s army, obliging him to hoist the white flag of surrender at 9:45 thereby ending the shortest war in history. Khalid bin Bargash took refuge in the German consulate and was later smuggled out to Dar es Salaam

The slide-show shows four photos of the devastation caused in Zanzibar by the war.

References:
  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Zanzibar_War
  2. Abyssina to Zanzibar 1850s-1950s Catalogue of the photographic archive of the Winterton Africana collection Allsworth rare books 2003 page 128

"American style"  Youtube film on shortest war ever:

1872 Miniature holy Koran published in 1872 and "found" in the ruins of the Palace in Zanzibar after the British bombardment in 1896

Octagonal lithographed Miniature koran

Octagonal lithographed Miniature Koran published in 1872 and was "found" in the ruins of the Palace in Zanzibar after the British bombardment in 1896" by a British soldier who wrote in pencil his name and where and when  he found the book.   Rare early lithographed miniature Koran (printed part is only 4 cm wide) ! This holy Koran was probably printed in Iraq or in India.

Antique Miniature koran Zanzibar

Antique miniature holy Koran picked up in the ruins of the bombed palace in Zanzibar.  A miniature Koran like this would be worn in a silver or golden box, bound around the upper arm of a person as an amulet.

Antique Miniature koran

Antique miniature Koran

Antique Miniature koran lithographed

 Antique miniature Koran

antique miniature koran zanzibarAntique miniature koran

Antique miniature Koran "found" in palace Zanzibar

Printed by Muhammad Jawad? Location: al-matba'al Haydariyah (al-Matba' al-Haydari or al-Matba'ah al-Haydariyah) ? 1872 / 1873. (Place of publication can be Hyderabad in India. Oman  and Zanzibar had Hyderabadi merchant communities  for several centuries. However it may also have been printed in Iraq, see below ) Let us Know If anyone knows more about the background of this very rare miniature Koran

A true miniature book has both a height and width less than 3 inches (approx. 7 cm) Octagonal shaped miniature Koran lithographed in Arabic with in manuscript English the notation by a British naval person that he "found it" in the palace of the sultan of Zanzibar immediately after the bombardment by British ships: See manuscript inscription  by the soldier in the slide-show! The miniature Koran is octagonal and it is 5 by 6 cm and the printed part is only 4 cm!  An early printed Arabic Koran printed by lithography in the Middle East (extremely rare: so far no information found on this holy Koran)

The Koran may originally have been put in a golden or silver box that was wrapped around the upper arm of travellers or soldiers as an amulet, see next item. In the past standard-bearers (sancakdār) also attached them as talisman to military flags / standards, that is why these miniature Korans are sometimes referred to as Sancak.

Comments by Yale university to this miniature Koran:

Possibly printed in Iraq or India, It was printed in 1289 /1290 of the Islamic calendar which corresponds to the year 1872/1873. Comments Yale university: The first image in the slide-show has the last chapter in the Koran (Surah 114: Surat al-Nas) with the colophon which says in transliteration "Qad hasal al-faragh min hadha al-Quran al-Majid wa-[al-]Furqan al-Hamid min yad aqall al-kuttab Muhammad Jawad fi al-Matba' al-Haydariyah fi sanat 1290" which translates: "[ The copying] of this Glorious Koran and Honorable Furqan [i.e. Koran] was concluded by the hand of the least of scribes Muhammad Jawad in al-Matba' al-Haydariyah in the year 1290 [H. i.e. 1873/1874]" However, the fourth image gives the date as the year 1289 [i.e. 1872/1873].

The name of the printing house which is given as "al-Matba' al-Haydariyah" is a bit problematic because grammatically it is not correct; it should have read either al-Matba' al-Haydari or al-Matba'ah al-Haydariyah. This is important to determine where the book was printed. If the name of the printing press is al-Matba' al-Haydari (which I believe it is) - the scribe Muhammad Jawad, judging from the colophon, doesn't seem to be all that versed in using grammatically correct Arabic - then the printing house should have been somewhere in India (Lucknow, Bombay or Hyderabad) because lithographic books were produced by the these printing houses from around the middle of the 19th century. On the other hand, if the printing house is al-Matba'ah al-Haydariyah, then this printing house was in al-Najaf, Iraq but I could not see any books printed in it in the 19th century. There are some lithographed books printed in it from around the first quarter of the 20th century onward. As for the third image it is the first and second chapters of the Koran (Surat al-Fatihah and the beginning of Surat al-Baqarah). The fourth image which has the date 1289, has a phrase which translates: "It should not be touched except by the purified ones.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Colophon: On  abudervish.blogspot.nl  there is a revised description of another copy of the same mini Koran: "On the colophone page of my Quran here, it was written: قد حصل الفراغ هذا القران المجيد وفرقان الحميد من يد اقل الكتاب محمد جواد في المطبع الحيدرية في سنه ٠ ٩ ٢ ١   "The copying of this Quran Al Majid and Furqan Al Hamid in the hand of Muhammad Jawad produced in Hyderiah Printing House in the year 1290 "  I was not aware of who was this copyist Muhammad Jawad and where was this Printing House identified as Hyderiah.  In the OmaniSilver website, similar Quran was commented by expert from Yale University believing it was a product of Iraq or India.  From a book " Al Quran The Sacred Art of Revelation" published by The Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia, it has a similar Quran with the same copyist but in a longer name and printed  in 1293 AH publication. See below the snapshot of this book.  The full name of the copyist given as Muhammad Jawad Ibn Mulla Muhammad Musa Kashmiri which I believe the same copyist of the Quran in this entry. The title Kashmiri indicated the copyist originally from Kashmir. The printer house was mentioned as Hyderiah however The IAMM identified it Hyderabad"

1914 Sea battle in Zanzibar involving the German ship Konigsberg and the British Pegasus (postcard and photo)

The German ship Konigsberg attacks and sinks the British Pegasus in 1914
In the early morning of 20 September 1914, Pegasus was anchored in Zanzibar harbour, having left her battle-group, which included Hyacinth and Astraea, to attend to boiler and engine problems. The German light cruiser SMS Königsberg launched a surprise attack on the ship. Out ranged and out-gunned, Pegasus was incapacitated within eight minutes, and the captain—Commander Ingles—struck the colours to avoid further bloodshed. The ship sank later that day, with 38 lives lost and 55 wounded

Background to the sea-battle:

The hospital ship Gascon and Scottish ship Clan Macrae came to the aid of the survivors of the Pegasus. Although Königsberg had suffered no hits or casualties, Looff′s plans to continue the offensive were soon cut short. One of her main engines failed. The British were watching the port of Dar es Salaam so she had to return to the Rufiji River delta to await the overland transport of spare parts. The British soon discovered Königsberg′s location and blockaded her. They damaged her beyond repair in the Battle of Rufiji Delta when they were able to bring up the monitors HMS Mersey and Severn.The first postcard is based on an unknown drawing / Photochemie Berlin 2841

Zanzibar  Pegasus Konigsberg 1914

                                                                 Konigsberg & Pegasus 1914

 

Sunken ship Konigsberg

                                                     Sunken ship Konigsberg?
References :