Emily Ruete
Princess Emily Ruete
PRINCESS EMILY RUETE

Omani Princess Salmah (Emily Ruete ) was born in 1844 on Zanzibar and the daughter of Said bin Sultan, Sultan of Oman and Zanzibar. She was the first Arab woman to write an autobiography (1886), with many interesting details about her life in Zanzibar the Omani palace.

Oscar Wilde read her memoirs and wrote in the magazine Woman's World : “The story of her life is as instructive as history and as fascinating as fiction" 

  memoiren einer arabischen prinzessin 1886

Princess Emily Ruete in her Omani costume. The photo was the only illustration in her memoirs. The large majority of newspaper critics were very positive about her memoirs except the Berlin correspondent of the English Times who wrote: "Princess Salme who gives a frontispiece presentment of herself in the barbaric glory of her native costume and also suggested the book was not written by her etc. "

 

 Emily eloped from Zanzibar and married a German (Heinrich Ruete) and lived many years in Germany.  In her works she also compares living as a woman in Zanzibar and Germany. Her memoirs were first published in German in 1886 and in 1888 in English.

 May 2017 an article by Hielke van der Wijk about Emily Ruete and her works was published in the annual of the Dutch Bibliophile Society (Jaarboek van het  Nederlands genootschap van Bibliofielen (pages 183-205) This article contains detailed information  and many illustrations of the different early editions of her "Memoiren 1886" / "Memoirs 1888" Emily's work has been republished many times in recent decades and in several languages.

In this website we refer at many places to passages in her very interesting book. So her book is also highly important for understanding the use of antique Omani / Zanzibari objects.

Emily grew up in the enormous Mtoni palace (see below) beautifully located outside Zanzibar Town next to a stream and the sea. Over a thousand people were living in this palace. Richard Burton who lived on Zanzibar compared the palace with a Gothic castle of a German prince!  

Mtoni Palace Zanzibar Emily Ruete

Emily Ruete was born in Bet il Mtoni Palace in 1844 (Photo from around 1900 shows the ruins of the palace)

She learned herself to write by copying the Holy Koran. Her father died in 1856 and then the Sultanate was split after two of her brothers could not agree who to become the new Sultan. Oman was run by her half-brother Thuwaini and her other half-brother Majid run Zanzibar. Majid suffered from the unknown disease epilepsy, many locals believed  his illness was caused by evil spirits (Jinns)!  Because Emily's father died, she became automatically of age, despite being only 12 years old and inherited a large sum of money and a plantation.

Antique photo Zanzibar

Zanzibar Stone-town around 1900

In 1859 Salme's brother Barghash started a coup against Sultan Majid.  Salme, 15 years old,  got involved, partly because she was able to write confidential letters. The coup failed because action was taken by the British and subsequently Barghash was deported to Bombay. After some time Majid re-established family contact with Salme but many family members ignored her because of her role in the coup against Majid. As a result Salme  was more and more drawn towards the Europeans on the island.

  Emily Ruete Zanzibar house

When Emily met Heinrich she lived in the house top right, photo probably taken by John Kirk around 1870 (part of a rooftop panorama probably taken from the clock-tower) According to van Donzel (page 14 Plate VII), based on a photo with manuscript inscription from son Rudolph, Emily lived in the part of the house with 4 lower windows that is painted white. The upper story was supposedly added later when the Hansing firm acquired the house.

 In 1865 she met the German trader Heinrich Ruete, fell in love and got pregnant. When she discovered Sultan Majid wanted to execute her, she escaped from the Island with help of the British to Aden. After 6 months she converted to Christianity, married Heinrich and departed for Germany. From now on her name was Emily Ruete.  In Hamburg she was happy and gave birth to  three children: Antonie, Rudolph and Rosalie. In 1870 disaster struck and Heinrich was killed by a horse-tram.  Emily, only 25 years old, did become a widow with three small children in a foreign country. To Emily's astonishment she and all women in Germany, were not allowed to manage their own finances..... Two male caretakers managed her finances and lost a large part of her capital. In Zanzibar Emily did run her own plantations and finances!   Life became difficult for her financially with three children and she started to teach Arabic. The fact that a princess became a teacher even reached the Dutch newspapers:

Emily Ruete Newspaper

April 7 1879 Arnhemsche Courant (also in two other Dutch papers)

(Several Dutch newspapers reported the news that a Royal (Emily) had to earn her living by becoming a teacher!)

 

Sultan Barghash brother Emily Ruete Emily Ruete's brother Sultan Barghash 1875

 

 In 1870 her brother Barghash became Sultan of Zanzibar. In 1871 the German empire was founded with an Emperor and Bismarck as a political leader. Bismarck raised at Emily's request the issue of her remaining inheritance with her brother Barghash, but without result. Emily made friends with the very influential Baroness van Tettau. She raised her problem with Victoria, daughter of Queen Victoria of Britain and who was married to the son of the German emperor. In 1875 Barghash came to London and Emily  also went to London and tried to contact her brother. However the British government tried everything they could to keep Emily away from Barghash. The British royals tried to help Emily but the Sultan did not give in. When Barghash went to the horse-races at Ascot  the Royals ignored him and he was not to allowed to join the Royal stand. In the end the British government promised financial compensation for Emily and she left the UK, but later the British did not full-fill their promises!

 Sultan Barghash at Ascot

Barghash at Ascot, but not in the royal stand. Quite a few horses at the races may very well have been of Omani descent 1875

 Because diplomacy did not work, Emily decided to get involved in the East African colonial politics of Germany. She wrote a secret letter in Arabic to her brother Barghash with the message that he should not trust the British, instead he should support the Germans and with her knowledge of the West she could help him how to best deal with the European colonial forces. Barghash did not respond and passed the letter to John Kirk the British Consul (see Kirk Papers)

In 1884 the (brutal) German adventurer Carl Peters came to the East African mainland and negotiated "contracts" with different (illiterate) tribal heads  that gave his "Gesellschaft fur Deutsche kolonisation" (theoretically) complete power of these areas in exchange for protection (promises which he could not really meet) and some small presents. 

Early 1885 the Berlin conference  led by Bismarck took place, during which European colonial nations divided up most of Africa between them and agreed to abolish slavery. Bismarck saw a strategic opportunity for Germany in the "contracts" negotiated by Peters and German Emperor Wilhelm I agreed military protection for the area of the "Gesellschaft" which meant it formally became a German protectorate. Barghash totally disagreed with the German protectorate, because the  Germans claimed territory, that was his!

Antique photo  zanzibar palace Emily Ruete

Photo of the Zanzibar palaces and the clock-tower around 1885

Behind the lighthouse is located the House of Wonders. These buildings were bombed by the British fleet in 1896. When rebuilt , the tower and palace were integrated.

Meanwhile Emily and her children secretly travelled via Port Said to Zanzibar, for the first time in 19 years she would return to the island. The last stage she traveled as "secret cargo" on the freight ship  Adler that,  close to Zanzibar,  was joined by a squadron of German warships. The warships were positioned opposite the Sultan's palace and the cannons were visible prepared for action. The British were at that time involved in several other military actions elsewhere in the world and did not want another conflict, so they persuaded the Sultan to accept the German protectorate. After this success the Germans raised the issue of the remaining inheritance of Emily, but the Sultan refused. The German admiral decided to let Emily go on shore, with German protection, where she was warmly greeted by the citizens of Zanzibar who walked along with her, this very much upset her brother Sultan Barghash.  After a few days, Berlin told Emily to go on board and travel back to Germany. During her absence The German and British representatives tried to persuade the Sultan to pay Emily 6000 pounds but he was only prepared to pay 6000 rupees (500 pound) this was of course not acceptable to Emily.  

Memoiren einer arabischen prinzessin 1886  

First Edition / Auflage  "Memoiren einer Arabischen Prinzessin" Luckhardt 1886. Cover  accurately shows Zanzibar palaces and lighthouse / clock-tower, see previous photo. Colour of the binding maybe inspired by colour of the Zanzibari / Omani flag. However, the cheaper version of the first edition had a cover printed on blue paper

In 1884 Emily had completed most of her memoirs and tried to get it published, however she could not agree on the financial terms with publisher Carl Hallberger.

 

Memoiren einer arabischen prinzessin

 

In 1886 her Memoirs finally came out, in German,  with the title "Memoiren einer Arabischen prinzessin" publisher Friedrich Luckhardt .  Emily had added an extra chapter to her book. The Memoirs contain a lively and colourful description of her life at the Zanzibar court from a cultural and political point of view. Emily felt that the Germans saw the East as a fairytale land, an image that was influenced by the Orientalism in art with their harems and fantasy buildings and also by the uncensored edition of Richard Burton's 1001 nights.    Interesting are the contrasts in customs and culture she highlights between East and West including education, health, materialism, position of the Eastern Woman, Arab view on slavery. Also items such as wedding proceedings, Ramadhan, Eid , illness and  influence of magic on daily life are discussed. Emily observed that in the free West many marriages are also unhappy and that arranged marriages can work if husband and wife have mutual understanding for each other. She also finely reminds that polygamy also exists in the West with the Mormons. In the East men are also reluctant to have multiple wife's as it can lead to jealousy and some women included in their marriage contract that their husband could not marry more wife's.

Emily says she wrote the book for her children, but she probably also intended to influence public opinion regarding the inheritance she claimed from her brother. Many positive reviews of the book were published in the German newspapers. The English newspaper the Times was more cynical (probably for political reasons). From May 1886 till October four editions of the German Memoiren were published, and then it ended.

Memoiren einer arabischen prinzessin 1886

Advertisement for 3rd edition of Emily's Memoiren by publisher Luckhardt 1886 
The main title of the ad translates to: "Sensational Novelty"

The princess and her son Rudolph kept an album with  newspaper cuttings with advertisements, articles and reviews of her book in 1886. The album also contains articles regarding the visit of Barghash to London. This album is part of the "Said Ruete Library" in Leiden University / NINO  Holland.

 

  Emily Ruete Memoiren einer Arabischen prinzessin 1886

One example of the 1886 memoirs contains a dedication by Emily to her son Rudolph in Arabic:

 

"Peace, a greeting and thousand

love tokens from your mother

Salma bint Said Sultan"

On January 5 1888 the first English edition named "Memoirs of an Arabian Princess" came out with publisher Ward & Downey in London. Some months later an American edition and a slightly smaller format and printed on cheap thin paper comes out with publisher Appleton, this was probably a pirate copy as there was no copyright in the US at that time.

 Sultan Bharghash brother of Emily Ruete

This photo of Sultan Barghash (Emily's Brother)  was taken during his visit to London 1879

 

The author Oscar Wilde writes a very positive review about her book in Woman’s World March 1888: Her book throws a great deal of light on the question of the position of women in the East, and shows that much of what has been written on this subject is quite inaccurate. [...]  No one who is interested in the social position of women in the East should fail to read these pleasantly-written memoirs. The Princess is herself a woman of high culture, and the story of her life is as instructive as history and as fascinating as fiction"

 

Memoirs of an Arabian princess 1888

First English edition by Ward & Downey Jan 1888. Note: The cover does not depict the palaces at Zanzibar  accurately (fantasy landscape). Ward & Downey published mostly novels.

 

Zanzibari Omani  led by Buschiri  started an uprising (Araberaufstand) in 1888 against the Germans and their own weak Sultan of Zanzibar, because their trade was being taken away by Carl Peter's "Gesellschaft". In the end the German navy had to help the "Gesellschaft" to end the uprising in 1890, this included a naval blockade of the East African coast.  Bushiri was captured and subsequently hanged by the Germans. It was clear that the "Gesellschaft"could not manage the area on their own. From then on the "Gesellschaft" did  effectively become the colony German East Africa.

Araber aufstand Buschiri

Buschiri leader of the Arab uprising (Araberaufstand 1888-1890)

 

 March 1888 Sultan Barghash died and he was succeeded by Sultan Khalifa, another brother of Emily. In April 1888 Emily went on her own initiative back to Zanzibar with daughter Rosalie, they arrived in May. She asked the German consul to sent her letter to Sultan Khalifa but he refused.  Subsequently she cursed everything German! She asked the English consul if she could get British citizenship but this was not possible. In the end she probably got  some money from ladies in the palace and decided not to return to Germany. instead she moved very disillusioned to Jaffa and in 1892 she moved to Beirut. Finally in 1914 (because WW1 was imminent) she returned to Germany where she died in Jena 1924  and was buried at the cemetery of Ohlsdorf near Hamburg.

Rudolph Said Ruete bookplate

Book-plate & signature of Rudolph Said-Ruete son of Emily Ruete.  The calligraphic text reads:

بنت سعيد بن سلطان حاكم عمان وزنجبار

رودولف سعيد روتي ابن سالمة

Rūdūlf Saʿīd Rūtī ibn Sālima

bint Saʿīd bin Sulān ākim ʿUmān wa-Zanjabār

Rudolph Said Ruete, son of Salma

bint Said Sultan, ruler of Oman and Zanzibar

The calligraphic Ex-Libris is copied from a manuscript document probably given by the Sultan of Oman in 1932 when Rudolph got the title Seyyid and was recognised as a member of the Sultan's family (the manuscript is currently owned by Rudolph's grandson Michael Bauer)

Carl  Peters was in 1893 recalled from East Africa because of his brutal behaviour against the local black population and died in 1918, but was rehabilitated by Hitler in the 1930's.

       In 1894 Rudolph Said-Ruete worked for a year at the German imperial consulate in Beirut, the city were Emily was living then.  Rudolph Said_Ruete was a German army officer but resigned from the army in 1898.  In 1901 Rudolph married Maria Theresa Matthias, her mother was the daughter of an  important German-British family of Industrialists (founder ICI), named Mond. From 1906 till 1910 Rudolph was director of the important Deutsche Orientbank in Cairo, during this period he became quite wealthy. He was involved in large infrastructure transactions including railway investments.  In 1914 Rudolph lived in London,  just before the first world-war in July he moved to Switzerland escaping imprisonment by the British as he was a German and former army officer. In the UK Rudolph's capital was frozen. In Germany some  people saw him as a traitor, probably including his brother in law General Troemer.

 

Around 1920, after the war, Rudolph returned to London.  With the rise of the German Nazi party in Germany he resigned his German citizenship and became British and continued living in London. In 1932 Sultan Khalifa of Zanzibar bestowed the title "Sayyid" upon Rudolph Said-Ruete. This made him an official member of the Al Bu Said family.   During the 1920's Rudolph tried to mediate, as an independent negotiator, between the Jews and Arabs in Palestine and made several constructive proposals and corresponded with people like Chaim  Weizmann.   Through the years Emily, Rosalie and Rudolph corresponded with their friend the Dutch Arabist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje. who was the founder and  head of the "Oosters Instituut" in Leiden Netherlands.

 

In 1885 Snouck first met Emily at a lecture he gave in Germany about his stay in Mekka 1884-1885, the next time Snouck came to Germany he personally went to visit Emily.  Snouck died in June 1936.  In remembrance of their long friendship, Emily's children Rudolph, Anthony and Rosalie  left in 1937 a collection of 800 books, manuscripts, photo's, paintings  and some other items from their mother Emily and themselves to the "Oosters Instituut" in Leiden Netherlands.  Most books came from Rudolph who complemented the books with thousands of newspaper article cuttings and many letters mostly relating to East Africa and Oman.   This collection is called the "Said Ruete library

 

Dutch Newspaper article from 1937, regarding the donation of the Said Ruete Library to the Oosters Instituut in Leiden:

Emily Ruete Newspaper

 Said Ruete Library leiden
Part of the Said Ruete Library at the NINO. Most of these printed books were collected by Emily's son Rudolph. Emily's manuscript letters and other material ended up in safe storage of the University of Leiden. The entire Said Ruete collection has recently been re-inventorised, and as a result the entire collection can soon be traced via the university catalogue.

In 1993 the head of the "Oosters Instituut" Prof. Dr. E. van Donzel wrote an excellent scientific edition of Emily's published and unpublished work, largely based on the fast information in the Said Ruete library. The book is named "Sayyida Salme / Emily Ruete  An Arabian Princess Between two worlds" published by Brill Leiden.   The Staatsbibliotek of Berlin has a permanent on-line exhibition about the life and works of Emily Ruete on their website. In the Palace Museum Bait al Sahel  in Zanzibar is a room dedicated to Emily Ruete. In 1937 the official Zanzibar museum got a number of objects that belonged to Princess Emily from her daughter Mrs Antonie Brandeis-Ruete. these objects included a dress of velvet, a gold embroidered mask, a pair of silk trousers, a silk girdle an envelope for holding a holy Koran and a gold signet ring , bearing in Arabic the name of the princess. There is also an interesting private museum dedicated to Emily Ruete, part of the material is based on an earlier exhibition in Hamburg. 

Strangely enough there has not yet been an Emily Ruete exhibition in the Netherlands, while for 80 years most information on Emily Ruete is to be found in Leiden!!             

Emily Ruete Bibliography

First detailed bibliography by Hielke van der Wijk of the early editions of Emily Ruete's Memoiren, in Jaarboek van het Nederlands Genootschap van Bibliofielen 2016

 

 Memoiren einer arabischen prinzessin 1886

  memoiren einer arabischen prinzessin

Four different covers of the first German edition issues of the Memoiren 1886

memoirs of an Arabian princess Ward Downey 1888

Issues of the genuine first English edition of the Memoirs 1888 by ward & Downey 

Memoirs of an Arabian princess  Appleton 1888

Issues of the first American edition (most probably a pirate copy by Appleton 1888 (text is identical to the earlier Ward & Downey edition) 

Mremoires d'une Princesse Arabe 1905

First French edition of the Memoires  1905

 

Memoirs of an Arabian Princess 1907

First Illustrated edition of the memoires in 1907(with revised English Text)

In 1985 the Memoirs were first published in Arabic with the title "Muḏakkirāt Amīra ʿarabiyya"; Qaysī, ʿAbd al-Maǧīd Ḥasīb al-; Masqaṭ : Wizārat al-Turāṯ al-Qawmī wa-al-Ṯaqāfa 1406/1985. This translation is based on the above American edition of 1907. Note that the English in that American edition deviates form the First English edition (Ward & Downey 1888). We also do not know how accurate / complete the Arab translation of the 1907 American edition is (see below). However we understand that some parts have not been included. On the internet  was the following additional information (but we unfortunately lost the location / link and unfortunately cannot confirm it's accuracy):  "The first Arabic translation of this autobiography was undertaken by Oman’s Ministry of Heritage and Culture in the early 1980’s and this dispels the general perception held at the time, that the Sultanate of Oman did not support its translation. This was of significant importance because it offered the Arabic reader the opportunity to acknowledge the book. This translation was based on one of the English texts, which was unfortunately not an accurate translation of the original book. Amendments made include chapters being combined and passages being moved from their original location. Therefore, the authenticity of the English and subsequent Arabic translated versions of the book are open to question. Moreover, the latter is further compounded due to the Arabic translator, Mr. Abdul Majid Hassib Al Quasi, distorting the text through omitting some parts altogether and adding his own personal embellished depictions. Consequently , the only authentic Arabic translation of the book is that of the Iraqi translator Dr. Salma Saleh, whose translation was based on original German text. This Arabic version of the autobiography was published twice in Germany by Dar Al Jammal in 2002 and later 2006"

Donzel Arabian Princess between two worlds

                  First English scientific edition including unpublished work 1993

 

 Emily Ruete Briefe nach der Heimat

First edition of the unpublished work in its original German 1997 

 

Emily Ruete Herinneringen van een Arabische Prinses

                                     First Dutch edition of the Memoiren in 1995

 

Below you find detailed examples of the early editions of the Memoiren.

Later more
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1886 Memoiren einer arabischen Prinzessin by Bibi Salme / Emily Ruete

!
Memoiren einer arabischen Prinzessin Emily Ruete

Memoiren einer Arabischen Prinzessin (with the Said Ruete Ex Libris!!) First edition third issue 1886. Author / Publisher:  Princess Emily Ruete ; Salima bint Said Al Bu Said ; Bibi Salme / Berlin Friedrich Luckhardt.  The name of the author is printed in calligraphic Arabic on the tile page.  The third issue held by the Said Ruete Library in Leiden University has blue coloured covers. However, copies held in other libraries have also a brown binding.

Memoiren einer arabischen prinzessin 1886

Exlibris Rudolph Said Ruete

Memoiren einer arabischen prinzessin

Book details:  Very rare German edition third issue (dritte auflage) of the first edition and with the Ex Libris in Arabic of her son Said Ruete in a standard cloth publisher binding.

These first edition issues in an original cloth binding are all extremely rare.  The buildings on the cover bear close resemblance to the palace buildings and clock-tower in Zanzibar. As the architecture of the buildings looks a bit Western the artist has probably added some tropical plants and trees in front.

The first German editions are much higher quality books than the English editions: beautiful paper and fine printing. Bibi Salme wrote the book in German so the text is also more authentic than the English translations. On the title page is the printed signature of Bibi Salme (in Arabic) Content 196, 190 p; Title in Gold print.

    References:
      1. An Arabian Princess between two worlds by E. van Donzel published by Brill  Leiden 1993
      2. 2015 Only the " Outward Appearance"  of a harem? Reading the memoirs of an Arabian princess as Material text by Kate Roy 13/1/2015 in Distinctions That Matter / Fictions Economiques  Belphegor literature populaire et culture  Comment: Interesting but not sure if all the conclusions make sense. Again no full analysis of the different  German and English first edition issues (with different covers)
      3. G.J. Kolff, De gedenkschriften eener Arabische prinses, long summary with comments of Emily's Memoirs in De Gids Jaargang 61 (1897) deel 3 p 85-106. This paper has not been quoted / referenced in any of the standard works discussing the Memoirs.
      4. Hielke van der Wijk, Het leven van Salme (1844-1924) prinses van Oman en Zanzibar, en de vroege uitgaven van haar memoires.(Jaarboek van het  Nederlands genootschap van Bibliofielen (pages 183-205) 2017
      5. Jos Damen, Boekenwereld tijdschrift voor boek en prent, van Tilt 25e jaargang nr 3 (Maart 2009) page 231 "waarom een prinses uit Zanzibar trouwde met een Duitse koopman En Hoe haar bibliotheek in Leiden terechtkwam"

1886 Memoiren einer arabischen Prinzessin, with Arabic handwritten dedication by the author Princess Bibi Salme / Emily Ruete to her son Rudloph and his Arabic Ex Libris and signature and the hidden signature of her daughter in law .

!
Memoiren einer Arabischen Prinzessin

 Memoiren einer Arabischen Prinzessin Volume 1 in first edition third issue:  The cover also has a different colour than the regular third issue of the first edition, however the same blue colour as the one in the Said Ruete library in Leiden.  

Author / Publisher: Princess Emily Ruete ; Salima bint Said Al Bu Said ; Bibi Salme / Berlin "H. Rosenberg"  1886.

 The blue Cloth binding (unusual for the third issue)

 Memoiren einer Arabischen Prinzessin

            The blue cloth binding, unusual for the third issue

 

memoiren einer arabischen prinzessin

Dedication by Princess Bibi Salme (Emily Ruete) to her son:
 
"Peace, greeting and thousand
love tokens from your mother
Salma bint Said Sultan"
 

Memoiren einer Arabischen prinzessin 

Book-plate & signature of Rudolph Said-Ruete (1869-1946)  son of Emily Ruete. 

The calligraphic text reads:

بنت سعيد بن سلطان حاكم عمان وزنجبار

رودولف سعيد روتي ابن سالمة

Rūdūlf Saʿīd Rūtī ibn Sālima

bint Saʿīd bin Sulān ākim ʿUmān wa-Zanjabār

Rudolph Said Ruete, son of Salma

bint Said Sultan, ruler of Oman and Zanzibar

The calligraphic Ex-Libris is copied from a manuscript document probably given by the Sultan of Oman in 1932 when Rudolph got the title Seyyid and was recognised as a member of the Sultan's family (the manuscript is currently owned by Rudolph's grandson Michael Bauer) 

Another remarkable find in this copy was that under the Ex Libris of my book is the signature of Rudolphs wife Maria Therese Mathias  (1872-1943). She was the daughter of Mathissen Mathias and Mathilde Mond. The Mond family founded the Chemical company ICI. The signature was discovered by holding a lamp behind the page. Rudolph and Therese married 16 Sept 1901! 

 

 Memoiren einer arabischen prinzessin

The signature of Therese Said Ruete, under the Exlibris!

 

Theresa Said Ruete

The signature of Therese in another copy of the Memoiren.

 

Memoiren einer arabischen prinzessin Rosenberg 1886

 Name publisher Luckhardt pasted over with the name of H. Rosenberg  (Hugo Mewis)
Hugo Mewis took voer Berlag Rsoenberg in 1900 but
 

In a quarter of the Memoiren has the name and address of publisher Luckhardt been pasted over with a paper slip  with the printed text ‘Berlin W. Verlag von H. Rosenberg (Hugo Mewis)’ This paper-slip is found on the copies with a cloth binding as well as the ones with the paper binding. According to  E. van Donzel the first issue is published by  H. Rosenberg (Hugo Mewis) and not by Luckhardt. However despite a very extensive search in many libraries, no copy has been found with the name of Rosenberg printed directly on the title page which makes the “Rosenberg  claim” most unlikely. Hermann Rosenberg, the founder of the firm had died already in 1873, but after his death the company was continued under the same name but the company was run by Ernst Meyerhoff (see Online catalog of the Deutsche National Bibliothek: d-nb.info/ 1107414385)   and from 1900 his employee Hugo Mewis became the owner (see Online catalog of the  Deutsche National Bibliothek: d-nb.info/ 1107414393) The paper slips have  probably been pasted on when Hugo Mewis had not yet taken over the business  because two copies have owner entries assumed to be from before 1900: one copy of the first edition has a dedication by Emily in Arabic to her son (our book) and one  copy of the first edition contains many corrections by Emily’s daughter Rosalie intended for a new German edition.

When the Memoiren were first published in 1886 the Rosenberg Verlag also had a loan library in Berlin. In theory the copies with the sticker could have been part of that loan library, however there are no visible "Ex Library" signs on these copies. But this would not explain  the name Hugo Mewis at that time.

Book details:   Extremely Rare. The book has a personal (by Emily) handwritten dedication in Arabic to her beloved son Rudolph, including her signature, see the slide-show!!!!!

A manuscript note on graph paper in German has been added in, but this is unreadable to us.

The book-plate / ex-libris of Bibi's son Rudolph Ruete has also been glued in plus his handwritten signature

On the title page the name of the publisher Luckhardt has been pasted over with a sticker named "Berlin W. Verlag H. Rosenbeg (Hugo Mewis) " However the colophon at the end of the volume states that the book was printed by "Buchdruckerei von Friedrich Luckhardt Berlin"

We have only volume 1.

Approx. 900 books that belonged to Rudolph Ruete have been left to the Leiden university in 1937  (see Ref 4) He was a friend of the princess and her son.   This library is called the Said-Ruete Library that currently resides in the NINO institute in Leiden.

    References:
  1. An Arabian Princess between two worlds by E. van Donzel published by Brill  Leiden 1993
  2. 2015 Only the " Outward Appearance"  of a harem? Reading the memoirs of an Arabian princess as Material text by Kate Roy 13/1/2015 in Distinctions That Matter / Fictions Economiques  Belphegor literature populaire et culture  Comment: Interesting but not sure if all the conclusions make sense. Again no full analysis of the different  German and English first edition issues (with different covers)
  3. G.J. Kolff, De gedenkschriften eener Arabische prinses, long summary with comments of Emily's Memoirs in De Gids Jaargang 61 (1897) deel 3 p 85-106. This paper has not been quoted / referenced in any of the standard works discussing the Memoirs.
  4. Hielke van der Wijk, Het leven van Salme (1844-1924) prinses van Oman en Zanzibar, en de vroege uitgaven van haar memoires.(Jaarboek van het  Nederlands genootschap van Bibliofielen (pages 183-205) 2017
  5. Boekenwereld Jos Damen 25 (2008-2009) page 231 Waarom een princes uit Zanzibar trouwde met een Duitse koopman en hoe  haar bibliotheek in Leiden terecht kwam. ( Summary of the story of Bibi Salme and how her library (including the manuscripts of her memoirs) ended up in Leiden University  (oosters instituut)).                                                                             
  6.  In 1937 the Said Ruete library was given to the Oosters Instituut of the University of Leiden  run by Professor Snouck Hurgronje to celebrate the friendship of Bibi Salme and her son Rudolph Ruete with professor Snouck Hurgronje. The books in the library contain some interesting manuscript letters including one by the archaeologist / spy Max von Oppenheim to Rudolph Said Ruete which contains the following sentence: ‘Sie gehören tatsächlich zu den wenigen, die, wie ich, dieser Art mit der arabischen Welt Beziehungen haben, was bei Ihnen ja gar nicht zu verwundern ist, sind Siedoch der Sohn einer arabischen Prinzessin.". Also a book with many letters by captain G.J. Eccles is included in the library.

The  Said-Ruete library can be found in  www.nino-leiden.nl

De manuscripts and papers of the Ruete family are in the University  Leiden, www.bibliotheek.leidenuniv.nl

Below you find a Youtube film in German showing the beautiful final resting place in Germany of princess Emily Ruete

 

1886 Memoiren einer arabischen Prinzessin 1886 by Emily Ruete

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By pricness Emily Ruete and owned by Emily's daughter Antonie

Memoiren einer Arabischen Prinzessin (with the Said Ruete Ex Libris!!) First edition third issue 1886. Author / Publisher:  Princess Emily Ruete ; Salima bint Said Al Bu Said ; Bibi Salme. Published by Friedrich Luckhardt in Berlin.  The name of the author is printed in calligraphic Arabic on the tile page.  The third issue held by the Said Ruete Library in Leiden University has blue coloured covers. However, copies held in other libraries have also a brown binding.

Memoiren eienr arabischen prinzessin by Emily Ruete

This copy also has the unusual blue covers and also belonged to the Ruete family, i.e. Emily's daughter Antonie (Brandeis)

Memoiren eiener arabischen prinzessin owned by Emily's daughter  Antonie Brandeis Ruete

 This book has manuscript name of "Antonie Brandeis geb Ruete". Antonie lived with her mother Emily Ruete in Beirut. Antonie was married in 1898 to Eugen Brandeis who became governor of the Marshall islands from 1898 until 1906 when he was removed from office for cruelty (flogging) and the Marshall islands were joined to German New Guinea. On Eugen Brandeis see  Dirk H.N. Spennemann "An officer, Yes, but a gentleman?  A biographical sketch of Eugen Brandeis military advisor, imperial judge and administrator in the German colonial service in the south pacific (Sydney centre for south pacific studies) In the early 1920's Antonie separated from her husband and lived in Hamburg.

In 1901 Antonie (with her daughter) went back to Beirut and subsequently to Berlin to attend the wedding of her brother Rudolph

Memoiren einer arabischen prinzessin Emily Ruete

Volume 2 also contains a reference by Antonie to "Hamburger Nachrichten 7.3.24", the article has been removed but we have been able to find locate that article regarding the death of Emily a few weeks earlier in 1924  (see below).  Antonie published herself a popular cooking-book for ex-pat ladies in the tropics.

Newspaper death Emily Ruete 1924

                    Newspaper death Emily Ruete
                                              Newspaper article death Emily Ruete 1924
 

 Book details:  Very rare German third issue (tritte auflage) of the first edition.

These first edition issues in an original cloth binding are all extremely rare.  The buildings on the cover bear close resemblance to the palace buildings and clock-tower in Zanzibar. As the architecture of the buildings looks a bit Western the artist has probably added some tropical plants and trees in front.

The first German editions are much higher quality books than the English editions: beautiful paper and fine printing. Bibi Salme wrote the book in German so the text is also more authentic than the English translations. On the title page is the printed signature of Bibi Salme (in Arabic) Content 196, 190 p; Title in Gold print.

References:
  1. G.J. Kolff, De gedenkschriften eener Arabische prinses, long summary with comments of Emily's Memoirs in De Gids Jaargang 61 (1897) deel 3 p 85-106. This paper has not been quoted / referenced in any of the standard works discussing the Memoirs.
  2. An Arabian Princess between two worlds by E. van Donzel published by Brill  Leiden 1993 
  3. 2015 Only the " Outward Appearance"  of a harem? Reading the memoirs of an Arabian princess as Material text by Kate Roy 13/1/2015 in Distinctions That Matter / Fictions Economiques  Belphegor literature populaire et culture  Comment: Interesting but not sure if all the conclusions make sense. Again no full analysis of the different  German and English first edition issues (with different covers)
  4. G.J. Kolff, De gedenkschriften eener Arabische prinses, long summary with comments of Emily's Memoirs in De Gids Jaargang 61 (1897) deel 3 p 85-106. This paper has not been quoted / referenced in any of the standard works discussing the Memoirs.
  5. Hielke van der Wijk, Het leven van Salme (1844-1924) prinses van Oman en Zanzibar, en de vroege uitgaven van haar memoires.(Jaarboek van het  Nederlands genootschap van Bibliofielen (pages 183-205) 2017
  6. Jos Damen, Boekenwereld tijdschrift voor boek en prent, van Tilt 25e jaargang nr 3 (Maart 2009) page 231 "waarom een prinses uit Zanzibar trouwde met een Duitse koopman En Hoe haar bibliotheek in Leiden terecht kwam"
  7. Antonie Brandeis geb. Ruete; Kochbuch für die Tropen. Nach langjährigen Erfahrungen in den Tropen und Subtropen; Berlin Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen)

1888 Memoirs of an Arabian princess (genuine first English edition) 1888

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Memoirs of an Arabian princess 1888 Emily Ruete

 

Memoirs of an Arabian princess by Emily Ruete / Bibi Salme.  This is the genuine first English edition published by Ward and Downey in London 1888.The name of the author, nor the translator is mentioned in the book.

 Memoirs of An Arabian Princess 1888

            Memoirs of an Arabian Princess published by Ward & Downey (First English Edition) 

Description: Very Rare. We found 8 other copies around the world with this binding. The copy of Trinity college probably entered the library  as a "legal deposit" in January 1888, but was advertised months earlier e.g. in the Ward and Downey book publication titled  "Six months in the Hejaz"

The book includes some corrections that Emily Ruete made after the first German edition in 1886 (see van Domsel). This issue with a grey cover, a bit faded. Just like the first German edition in 1886 every issue of the first English edition has a cover in a different colour! The book been republished many times well into recent times.  

The pictorial illustration on the cover is a romantic version of the German cover: however the architecture of the buildings bear no resemblance to the Omani palaces in Zanzibar.

Some minor spotting otherwise fine

 References:
  1. An Arabian Princess between two worlds by E. van Donzel published by Brill  Leiden 1993
  2. Jos Damen, Boekenwereld tijdschrift voor boek en prent, van Tilt 25e jaargang nr 3 (Maart 2009) page 231 "waarom een prinses uit Zanzibar trouwde met een Duitse koopman En Hoe haar bibliotheek in Leiden terechtkwam" Article discusses the Said Ruete library in Leiden university.In 1937 the Said Ruete library was given to the Oosters Instituut of the University of Leiden  run by Professor Snouck Hurgronje to celebrate the friendship of Bibi Salme and her son Rudolph Ruete with professor Snouck Hurgronje. The books in the library contain some interesting manuscript letters including one by the archaeologist / spy Max von Oppenheim to Rudolph Said Ruete which contains the following sentence: ‘Sie gehören tatsächlich zu den wenigen, die, wie ich, dieser Art mit der arabischen Welt Beziehungen haben, was bei Ihnen ja gar nicht zu verwundern ist, sind Siedoch der Sohn einer arabischen Prinzessin.". Also a book with many letters by captain G.J. Eccles is included in the library.

                       The  Said-Ruete library can be found in  www.nino-leiden.nl

De manuscripts and papers of the Ruete family are in the University  Leiden, www.bibliotheek.leidenuniv.nl

 

1888 Memoirs of an Arabian Princess First American Edition

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Memoirs of an Arabian Princess by Emily Ruete

 Memoirs of an Arabian Princess. Emily Ruete, Nee Princess of Oman and Zanzibar / Appleton & co New York 1888. Second English Edition. Probably a pirate copy of the Ward & Downey edition; by Emily Ruete. 

Memoirs of an Arabian princess 1888

 Memoirs of an Arabian princess published by Appleton 1888 (pirate copy)

Memoirs of an Arabian Princess 1888

 

                          Memoirs of an Arabian princess published by Appleton 1888 (pirate copy) 

Description

Fairly common book. Perfect condition. Cheap issue on pulp paper. This edition is not very rare. Second edition of the memoirs in English, in the same year as the first one. The Ward and Downey edition entered the library of Trinity College in January as a legal deposit in January, and was advertised months earlier.

Based on advertisements of the time we can conclude that his American edition was published one or two months later. As at that time no copyright existed in the US we cannot determine a more exact date via the "legal Deposits" As there was no copyright in the US at the time it is very well possible that it was a pirate copy.

The text is identical to the Ward & Downey publication. In this Appleton edition the name of Emily Ruete (Bibi Salme) is mentioned on the title page, unlike the Ward & Downey edition.

The picture on the front cover has some resemblance to the palaces in Zanzibar  i.e. closer to the German pictorial cover.

 Condition Browned as always, small size. Fairly common.
 References An Arabian Princess between two worlds by E. van Donzel published by Brill  Leiden 1993

1888 Memoirs of an Arabian Princess, genuine first English edition by Emily Ruete

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Memoirs of an Arabian princess Emily Ruete

Memoirs of an Arabian Princess by Emily Ruete / Bibi Salme.  Probably the second issue of the first English edition in 1888. The name of the author, nor the translator is mentioned in the book.

 

 Memoirs of an Arabian princess 1888

    Memoirs of an Arabian Princess, first English edition published by Ward & Downey 1888 

Description: Extremely rare. Some minor spotting otherwise fine. Extremely rare first English edition. It is probably the second issue of  the first edition in 1888. This issue is not present in any of the libraries around the world.

The contents is completely identical to the other issue, only the binding is different.

The pictorial illustration on the cover is a romantic version of the German cover: however the architecture of the buildings bear no resemblance to the Omani palaces in Zanzibar.

Also includes some corrections that Emily Ruete made after the first German edition in 1886 (see van Domsel) This issue with a blue / turquoise cover. Just like the first German edition in 1886 every issue of the first English edition has a cover in a different colour!  The book has been republished many times well into recent times.       

     References
  1. An Arabian Princess between two worlds by E. van Donzel published by Brill  Leiden 1993
  2. Jos Damen, Boekenwereld tijdschrift voor boek en prent, van Tilt 25e jaargang nr 3 (Maart 2009) page 231 "waarom een prinses uit Zanzibar trouwde met een Duitse koopman En Hoe haar bibliotheek in Leiden terechtkwam" Discussed the Said Ruete library in Leiden university.
  3. The book was translated into English in 1888 and published by Ward and Downey in London. There is another 1888 (cheap) American edition published by Appleton (probably a pirate copy) in 1907 the first illustrated edition was published.            

  4. 2015 Only the " Outward Appearance"  of a harem? Reading the memoirs of an Arabian princess as Material text by Kate Roy 13/1/2015 in Distinctions That Matter / Fictions Economiques  Belphegor literature populaire et culture  Comment: Interesting but not sure if all the conclusions make sense. Again no full analysis of the different  German and English first edition issues (with different covers)

1886 Memoiren einer Arabischen prinzessin 1886 first edition first issue by Bibi Salme / Emily Ruete

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memoiren einer arabischen prinzessin Emily Ruete

Memoiren einer Arabischen Prinzessin. First edition first Issue Volume 1 in an original contemporary (non standard)  cloth binding bound by the bookbinder J.R. Herzog Leipzig.  Volume 2 in different later binding.. Volume 1 has heavily gilded page edges. Author / Publisher: Emily Ruete (= Bibi Salme) Berlin Friedrich Luckhardt 1886 The formal name of the author Salme (bint) Said (bin)Sultan is printed in calligraphic Arabic on the title page. Content 196, 190 p. Title on cover and spine of volume 1 in gold print.

Memoiren einer Arabischen prinzessin

                                                                          Title page first edition  

Book details: Extremely Rare first German edition first Luckhardt issue! of the first edition. No other copy of the Memoiren with this very fine (but non standard) contemporary cloth binding (by the binder J.R. Herzog) and heavily gilded edges has been found so far.

The Memoiren were sold with a standard  cloth pictorial publisher binding (13 Mark)  or with a pictorial paper cover (10 Mark)  Most copies found of the Memoiren are  of the cheaper paper variant that have been rebound, sometimes the original paper covers have been bound with the book. The standard illustration on both type of covers covers shows the palaces and clock tower  in Stonetown Zanzibar. The paper cover of the first auflage (first issue) has been printed on blue paper.

One copy of the first issue in a standard red pictorial publisher cloth binding (the only one found so far) was sold in the past at Christie's, but this copy is untraceable. All the German issues (Auflagen) by Luckhardt in the original  pictorial publisher binding are very rare.

Each of the four issues of the Memoiren in a cloth binding had a different colour. The first issue was a red binding the second Turquoise and the third and fourth red-brown. The reason for the first issue being bound in a red binding is probably that the flag of Oman and Zanzibar was plain red. 

A quarter of the books with cloth publisher binding or with the paper covers have a sticker  "Berlin W verlag von H Rosenberg (Hugo Mewis)"  pasted over the name of publisher Luckhardt on the title page and on the paper cover. The reason for these stickers is still a mystery.

The first German editions are  higher quality books than the English editions (especially when compared with the Appleton edition) beautiful paper and fine printing. Bibi Salme wrote the book in German so the text is also more authentic than the English translations.

This book is the genuine( ! ) autobiography of Princess Bibi Salme daughter of Sayyid Sai’id Ibn Sultan, ruler of Oman and Zanzibar who escaped from the palace and her country to marry the German merchant Ruete, they lived in Germany and got three children. The book presents the reader with an intimate picture of life in Zanzibar between 1850 and 1865, and an inside portrait of her brothers Majid bin Said and Barghash bin Said who both became sultans of Zanzibar. After the death of her husband, Emily Ruete was caught up in the colonial plans of Otto von Bismarck.

 References:
  1. An Arabian Princess between two worlds by E. van Donzel published by Brill  Leiden 1993
  2. G.J. Kolff, De gedenkschriften eener Arabische prinses, long summary with comments of Emily's Memoirs in De Gids Jaargang 61 (1897) deel 3 p 85-106. This paper has not been quoted / referenced in any of the standard works discussing the Memoirs.
  3. Hielke van der Wijk, Het leven van Salme (1844-1924) prinses van Oman en Zanzibar, en de vroege uitgaven van haar memoires.(Jaarboek van het  Nederlands genootschap van Bibliofielen (pages 183-205) 2017
  4. Jos Damen, Boekenwereld tijdschrift voor boek en prent, van Tilt 25e jaargang nr 3 (Maart 2009) page 231 "waarom een prinses uit Zanzibar trouwde met een Duitse koopman En Hoe haar bibliotheek in Leiden terechtkwam"
  5. 2015 Only the " Outward Appearance"  of a harem? Reading the memoirs of an Arabian princess as Material text by Kate Roy 13/1/2015 in Distinctions That Matter / Fictions Economiques  Belphegor literature populaire et culture  Comment: Interesting but not sure if all the conclusions make sense. Again no full analysis of the different  German and English first edition issues (with different covers)

1905 Memoires d'une Princesse Arabe by Emily Ruete

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French edition of Memoirs of an Arabian princess by Emily Ruete

First French edition of the Memoirs of an Arabian princess by Emily Ruete / Bibi Salme.Translated by L. Lindsay. Published by Paris, Dujarric & Cie., 1905. - Small 8vo. (6), 330 pp. Cloth with  half calf with marbled boards and gilt-stamped spine. The original covers have been bound in as well. Size 12,5 by 19 cm.

Memoires d'une Princesse Arabe 1905

Memoires d'une Princesse Arabe 1905

Scarce book. First French edition of this fascinating biography of the Princess of Oman and Zanzibar, who married a German and later fled to Aden and Hamburg after becoming pregnant by him. The work is considered the first known autobiography of an Arab woman. It presents a remarkable perspective on the daily life of the Sultan in the mid and late 19th century, viewed from the eyes of an well-educated woman - subjects such as "La situation de la femme en Orient" ("A Woman's Position in the East", ch. XVI), courtship ("La mariage arabe", "Arab Matchmaking", ch. XVII), harems and polygamy, and even slavery are discussed at length (the Princess appearing rather favourably disposed to the latter!) As a later Christian convert, she remains fiercely proud of her homeland: "But it is just in Arabia, and with the Arab people, that the true Mahometan spirit, upon which the views of other Eastern nations are founded, has maintained itself most pure" (transl.). Her view of Muslim life represents the level-headed appreciation of a native of both East and West: "I have seen too many of such unhappy cases [of Christian marriage] to make me believe that Christian wedlock stands on a higher level or renders people much happier than the Mahometan [.] it is quite a fallacy to think that woman in the East is placed socially on a lower level than man. The legitimate wife - the purchased Sarari are of course to be excepted - stands in all respects on a par with her husband, and she always retains her rank, and all rights and titles emanating from it" Emily (Sayyida Salme) and her husband lived comfortably in Germany until the latter's death in 1870, upon which Emily was prompted to write the present work partly to alleviate her financial concerns. 
References:
  1. Hiler 763
  2. Dr. E. van Donzel An Arabian Princess Between Two Worlds: Memoirs, Letters Home, Sequels to the Memoirs, Syrian Customs and Usages  published by Brill Leiden

1907 Memoirs of an Arabian princess (first illustrated edition) by Emily Ruete

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Author: Emily Ruete ( Sayyida Salme / Bibi Salme) 1844-1924 Pictorial cloth binding. 227 pages. 16 by 23 cm. Top edge gilt.Translated by Lionel Strachey (1864-1927) New York Doubleday, Page & Company 1907. This book is not rare. This is the first illustrated edition of the Memoirs.

Memoirs of an Arabian Princess 1907

   First illustrated English edition of Emily's Memoirs of an Arabian Princess, revised text 

The beginning of the book states: The work of which a translation is here offered originally came out as "Memoiren einer Arabischen Prinzessin" Published by a Berlin firm in 1886, it was immediately  followed by an English edition, which seems to have attracted little interest, both the German and the English versions soon falling into obscurity and going out of print.

References:
  1. Dr. E. van Donzel An Arabian Princess Between Two Worlds: Memoirs, Letters Home, Sequels to the Memoirs, Syrian Customs and Usages  published by Brill Leiden 1993 page 529

1995 Herinnering van een Arabische prinses, First translation of the memoirs into Dutch by Tinke Davids

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First edition of the memoirs in Dutch 1995

The translation is by Tinke Davids.  The Afterword of the Memoirs was originally written in German by Annegret Nippa in 1885. However anyone interested in the background to the memoirs can much better read  ref 1 "An Arabian princess between Two worlds" by van Donzel.

Anyone interested in the bibliography of the Memoirs should read ref 3 "Het leven van Salme (1844-1924) prinses van Oman en Zanzibar, en de vroege uitgaven van haar memoires" by Hielke van der Wijk

 Memoirs of an Arabian Princess in Dutch

Emily Ruete and her children left Emily's "intellectual inheritance" (the Said Ruete Library) of books, letters and manuscripts to the Oosters Instituut in Leiden Holland, this was reported by several Dutch Newspaper in 1937. Several Dutch articles appeared about Emily Ruete during her life. Some lengthy Dutch Dutch articles discussed Emily's Memoirs (see e.g. ref 2 De Gids  1897). Despite all this attention it took until 1995 for the first edition of Emily's Memoirs to appear in Dutch.

Newspaper Article memoirs of an Arabian Princess

 

Newspaper article Emily Ruete

 

Said-Ruete Library in 1937 to Oosters Instituut Leiden

 

Newpaper article Emily Ruete inheritance

 

Emily Ruete  teaches Arabic

 

References:
  1. E. van Donzel , An Arabian Princess between two worlds,  published by Brill  Leiden 1993
  2. G.J. Kolff, De gedenkschriften eener Arabische prinses, long summary with comments of Emily's Memoirs in De Gids Jaargang 61 (1897) deel 3 p 85-106. This paper has not been quoted / referenced in any of the standard works discussing the Memoirs.
  3. Hielke van der Wijk, Het leven van Salme (1844-1924) prinses van Oman en Zanzibar, en de vroege uitgaven van haar memoires.(Jaarboek van het  Nederlands genootschap van Bibliofielen (pages 183-205) 2017

1993 Sayyida Salme / Emily Ruete An Arabian Princess between two Worlds Memoirs, letters Home, Sequels to the Memoirs, Syrian Customs & usages First edition of the Letters Home and Sequels to the Memoirs translated into English.

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An Arabian Princess between two worlds 1993

Sayyida Salme / Emily Ruete An Arabian Princess between two Worlds Edited with an introduction by E. van Donzel. The work contains a short biography of Princess Salme / Emily Ruete and of her son Rudolph Said Ruete, a new English translation of her Memoirs, and and English version of her other writings, unpublished  so far: Letters Home, Sequels to the memoirs, and Syrian Customs and Usages.

Van Donzel was head of the Oosters Instiuut in Leiden. The founder of the Oosters instituut was the famous Arabist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje. Snouck was a personal friend of Emily and they corresponded for many years. Also daughter Rosaly and son Rudolph corresponded with Snouck. The children of Emily left books, manuscripts, photos and paintings to the Oosters Instituut. Also the book and manuscript collection of sonRudolph, that related largely to Oman and Zanzibar, was left to the Oosters isntituut. The material in the Said Ruete was the most important source for the book by van Donzel. 

References:
  1. Hiler 763
  2. Dr. E. van Donzel An Arabian Princess Between Two Worlds: Memoirs, Letters Home, Sequels to the Memoirs, Syrian Customs and Usages  published by Brill Leiden

1999 Emily Ruete : Briefe Nach der Heimat (First German edition of the Literarischer Nachlass based on a typescript produced during the 1920's from the original manuscript)

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Emily Ruete Briefe nach der heimat

Author: Emily Ruete geb. prinzessin Salme von Oman und Sansibar. With afterword by Heinz Schneppen.

Published by: Philo Berlin; Bodenheim bei Mainz 1999

Emily Ruete : Briefe Nach der Heimat  

Book Description: A scarce publication. First issue of the book in German. The book was first published in English by van Donzel and published by Brill in 1993. The book is a follow-up on her Memoirs form an Arabian princess, that described her life in Zanzibar. The current book covers the period when she moved to Germany.

Emily Ruete died in 1924. A typescript of her "Nachlass" was produced in 1929 in order to have the book published.  Unfortunately no serious publisher was found at that time. A few copies of this typescript exist, one of them is in the NINO institute in Leiden. The University Library in Leiden also has the manuscripts on which the typescript is based.  Another copy of the typescript is in the Staatsbibliothek in Berlin and has the inscription from Emily's son Rudolph that the typescript cannot be published  before 1940 without the consent of Rudolph.

References:
  1. An Arabian Princess between two worlds by E. van Donzel published by Brill  Leiden 1993
  2. G.J. Kolff, De gedenkschriften eener Arabische prinses, long summary with comments of Emily's Memoirs in De Gids Jaargang 61 (1897) deel 3 p 85-106. This paper has not been quoted / referenced in any of the standard works discussing the Memoirs.
  3. Hielke van der Wijk, Het leven van Salme (1844-1924) prinses van Oman en Zanzibar, en de vroege uitgaven van haar memoires.(Jaarboek van het  Nederlands genootschap van Bibliofielen (pages 183-205) 2017